Development and external validation of a machine learning model for the prediction of persistent acute kidney injury stage 3 in multi-centric, multi-national intensive care cohorts

Crit Care. 2024 Jun 4;28(1):189. doi: 10.1186/s13054-024-04954-8.


BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to develop and validate on multiple international datasets a real-time machine learning model able to accurately predict persistent acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU).

METHODS: We selected adult patients admitted to ICU classified as AKI stage 2 or 3 as defined by the “Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes” criteria. The primary endpoint was the ability to predict AKI stage 3 lasting for at least 72 h while in the ICU. An explainable tree regressor was trained and calibrated on two tertiary, urban, academic, single-center databases and externally validated on two multi-centers databases.

RESULTS: A total of 7759 ICU patients were enrolled for analysis. The incidence of persistent stage 3 AKI varied from 11 to 6% in the development and internal validation cohorts, respectively and 19% in external validation cohorts. The model achieved area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.94 (95% CI 0.92-0.95) in the US external validation cohort and 0.85 (95% CI 0.83-0.88) in the Italian external validation cohort.

CONCLUSIONS: A machine learning approach fed with the proper data pipeline can accurately predict onset of Persistent AKI Stage 3 during ICU patient stay in retrospective, multi-centric and international datasets. This model has the potential to improve management of AKI episodes in ICU if implemented in clinical practice.

PMID:38834995 | DOI:10.1186/s13054-024-04954-8

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