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Acute Bronchitis

Updated : January 4, 2023





Background

In acute bronchitis, the primary airways leading to the lungs expand and become inflamed. It becomes difficult to breathe due to the inflammatory narrowing of the airways, and productive cough and mucus are the first symptoms of bronchitis. Acute refers to symptoms that last for a shorter duration.

Epidemiology

Acute bronchitis is a common condition in a clinical setting. It is estimated about 5% of the population suffers from acute bronchitis each year, resulting in more than ten million clinic visits. Acute bronchitis, like most viral respiratory illnesses, is common during flu season.

Flu season is frequent in the United States during the winter and autumn. It can occur as a result of a viral upper respiratory tract infection. Parainfluenza, rhinovirus, influenza viruses A & B, and other related viruses are associated with this condition.

Anatomy

Pathophysiology

Acute bronchitis is caused by a bronchi inflammation caused by various factors, most typically pollutants, viral infection, and allergens.

The bronchial wall nflammation causes epithelial-cell desquamation, mucosal thickening, and basement membrane denudation.

A viral respiratory infection often progresses to a lower respiratory tract infection, leading to acute bronchitis.

Etiology

Acute bronchitis is also induced by a viral infection of the upper airways and is usually self-limiting. Bacterial infection is relatively uncommon. Viruses cause around 95% of acute bronchitis in healthy individuals.

Allergens, irritants, microorganisms, smoke inhalation, toxic air inhalation, and dust are irritants that can trigger the onset of the condition. A history of smoking, residing in a contaminated environment, urbanization, and a family history of asthma are all risk factors for acute bronchitis.

Specific allergens, such as pollens, scents, and fumes, might cause acute bronchitis in certain persons. When a bacterial infection occurs, the isolated pathogens generally are the same as the cause of community-acquired pneumonia, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia.

Genetics

Prognostic Factors

In most cases, acute bronchitis is self-limiting and recovers with symptomatic therapy. Secondary pneumonia may develop.

In the previous research, relatively few acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure cases have been recorded.

Clinical History

Physical Examination

Age group

Associated comorbidity

Associated activity

Acuity of presentation

Differential Diagnoses

Laboratory Studies

Imaging Studies

Procedures

Histologic Findings

Staging

Treatment Paradigm

by Stage

by Modality

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Surgical Interventions

Hormone Therapy

Immunotherapy

Hyperthermia

Photodynamic Therapy

Stem Cell Transplant

Targeted Therapy

Palliative Care

Medication

 

amoxicillin 

Mild/moderate/severe:

875

mg

every 12 hrs or 500mg every 8hrs



ciprofloxacin 

In the case of mild/moderate infections: 500 mg orally every 12 hours or 400 mg intravenously every 12 hours for 7-14 days
In the case of severe/complicated infections: 750 mg orally every 12 hours or 400 mg intravenously every 8 hours for 7-14 days
Limitations for usage: Reserve the fluoroquinolones for patients who are voided of available treatment options for chronic bronchitis



pleurisy root 


Indicated for Respiratory problems, bronchitis, cough

1-4 ml of tincture orally three times a day in water



soapwort 

1 to 2 grams of extract to be taken orally every day or 1.5 grams root to be taken orally every day



loracarbef 

Indicated for acute bronchitis (Secondary bacterial infection) For one week, take 200-400 mg two times a day by oral route



 

amoxicillin 

Mild/moderate/severe :

45 mg/kg daily divided in doses for every 12hrs or 40 mg/kg per day in divided doses for every 8hrs



 

Media Gallary

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK448067/

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Acute Bronchitis

Updated : January 4, 2023




In acute bronchitis, the primary airways leading to the lungs expand and become inflamed. It becomes difficult to breathe due to the inflammatory narrowing of the airways, and productive cough and mucus are the first symptoms of bronchitis. Acute refers to symptoms that last for a shorter duration.

Acute bronchitis is a common condition in a clinical setting. It is estimated about 5% of the population suffers from acute bronchitis each year, resulting in more than ten million clinic visits. Acute bronchitis, like most viral respiratory illnesses, is common during flu season.

Flu season is frequent in the United States during the winter and autumn. It can occur as a result of a viral upper respiratory tract infection. Parainfluenza, rhinovirus, influenza viruses A & B, and other related viruses are associated with this condition.

Acute bronchitis is caused by a bronchi inflammation caused by various factors, most typically pollutants, viral infection, and allergens.

The bronchial wall nflammation causes epithelial-cell desquamation, mucosal thickening, and basement membrane denudation.

A viral respiratory infection often progresses to a lower respiratory tract infection, leading to acute bronchitis.

Acute bronchitis is also induced by a viral infection of the upper airways and is usually self-limiting. Bacterial infection is relatively uncommon. Viruses cause around 95% of acute bronchitis in healthy individuals.

Allergens, irritants, microorganisms, smoke inhalation, toxic air inhalation, and dust are irritants that can trigger the onset of the condition. A history of smoking, residing in a contaminated environment, urbanization, and a family history of asthma are all risk factors for acute bronchitis.

Specific allergens, such as pollens, scents, and fumes, might cause acute bronchitis in certain persons. When a bacterial infection occurs, the isolated pathogens generally are the same as the cause of community-acquired pneumonia, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia.

In most cases, acute bronchitis is self-limiting and recovers with symptomatic therapy. Secondary pneumonia may develop.

In the previous research, relatively few acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure cases have been recorded.

amoxicillin 

Mild/moderate/severe:

875

mg

every 12 hrs or 500mg every 8hrs



ciprofloxacin 

In the case of mild/moderate infections: 500 mg orally every 12 hours or 400 mg intravenously every 12 hours for 7-14 days
In the case of severe/complicated infections: 750 mg orally every 12 hours or 400 mg intravenously every 8 hours for 7-14 days
Limitations for usage: Reserve the fluoroquinolones for patients who are voided of available treatment options for chronic bronchitis



pleurisy root 


Indicated for Respiratory problems, bronchitis, cough

1-4 ml of tincture orally three times a day in water



soapwort 

1 to 2 grams of extract to be taken orally every day or 1.5 grams root to be taken orally every day



loracarbef 

Indicated for acute bronchitis (Secondary bacterial infection) For one week, take 200-400 mg two times a day by oral route



amoxicillin 

Mild/moderate/severe :

45 mg/kg daily divided in doses for every 12hrs or 40 mg/kg per day in divided doses for every 8hrs



https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK448067/

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