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Atopic Eczema

Updated : August 3, 2023





Background

The most prevalent type of dermatitis is eczema, sometimes referred to as atopic dermatitis. It is believed that both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the etiology. Although it can affect adults, eczema is more frequently found in youngsters.

People who have the condition frequently have infected, dry, and itchy skin. Eczema is frequently referred to as the “itching that rashes” because of the dry skin that causes a rash when scratched or rubbed.

Dermal hydration is the most crucial aspect of treating eczema, followed by steroid creams treating flare-ups.

Epidemiology

Atopic dermatitis affects about 2-10 percent of adults & 15-30 percent of children during the course of their lifetimes. 60 percent of instances start to manifest within a year of the birth.

In contrast to metropolitan settings, atopic dermatitis is more prevalent in rural ones. This incident highlights the connection between environmental and lifestyle factors and AD mechanisms. Atopic dermatitis is a member of the “Atopic March” trio.

This relates to the correlation between individuals with asthma, allergic rhinitis, & atopic dermatitis. People with chronic atopic dermatitis have a 50 percent chance of developing asthma & a 75 percent chance of developing allergic rhinitis.

Anatomy

Pathophysiology

Atopic dermatitis has a hereditary component, according to research. The protein Filaggrin, which is essential for skin tissue maturity, has been found to have a frequent mutation. The rough, flattened corneocytes that make up the skin’s outermost layer of protection are produced by this gene.

The corneocytes are neatly arranged and densely packed in a patient with regular skin cells. Because of the disorganized arrangement of the skin cells, an individual with filaggrin mutations will have a defective protective barrier. Due to this malfunction, the skin barrier becomes “leaky,” enabling fluid loss & reducing protection from dangerous substances.

Additionally, the amount of beta-defensins in the epidermis is decreased in eczema patients. Host defense peptides called beta-defensins are essential for warding off specific fungi, bacteria, & viruses. Particularly with s. aureus, an increase in colonization and infection results from a reduction in such peptides.

Etiology

Eczema patients have a malfunctioning barrier that contributes to a number of issues. For healthy skin hydration, the cells that comprise our epidermis are crucial. Dryness is a common symptom of eczema due to the breakdown of the barrier function. Dehydrated epidermis results from the skin’s increased ability to lose water.

Additionally, those who have eczema are more prone to illness. The malfunction allows harmful chemicals to easily infiltrate the skin. Atopic dermatitis patients frequently have an abnormally inflamed immune reaction, & their epidermis is sensitive to allergens and odors.

Genetics

Prognostic Factors

The majority of kids with eczema “grow out of” it by the time they reach adulthood. The persistence of the disease is higher in kids with earlier onset, more serious disease, and/or previously chronic disease.

Clinical History

Physical Examination

Age group

Associated comorbidity

Associated activity

Acuity of presentation

Differential Diagnoses

Laboratory Studies

Imaging Studies

Procedures

Histologic Findings

Staging

Treatment Paradigm

by Stage

by Modality

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Surgical Interventions

Hormone Therapy

Immunotherapy

Hyperthermia

Photodynamic Therapy

Stem Cell Transplant

Targeted Therapy

Palliative Care

Medication

 

clocortolone 

Apply lightly to the affected area three times daily
Discontinue the treatment if infection occurs due to occlusive dressing, and further initiate an antimicrobial therapy



tolnaftate, gentamicin, chinoform and betamethasone valerate 

Apply topical cream to the affected area twice a day



bufexamac 

Apply the 5% cream topically to the areas of affected skin



hydrocortisone acetate 

Indicated for eczema
Apply in small amounts on the affected area one time or two times daily
The treatment duration is seven days
Seek medical advice if, after seven days, there is still no improvement



 

hydrocortisone acetate 

Indicated for eczema
child ten years old and more
Apply in small amounts on the affected area one time or two times daily
The treatment duration is seven days
Seek medical advice if, after seven days, there is still no improvement



 

hydrocortisone acetate 

Indicated for eczema
Apply in small amounts on the affected area one time or two times daily
The treatment duration is seven days
Seek medical advice if, after seven days, there is still no improvement



Media Gallary

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538209/

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Atopic Eczema

Updated : August 3, 2023




The most prevalent type of dermatitis is eczema, sometimes referred to as atopic dermatitis. It is believed that both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the etiology. Although it can affect adults, eczema is more frequently found in youngsters.

People who have the condition frequently have infected, dry, and itchy skin. Eczema is frequently referred to as the “itching that rashes” because of the dry skin that causes a rash when scratched or rubbed.

Dermal hydration is the most crucial aspect of treating eczema, followed by steroid creams treating flare-ups.

Atopic dermatitis affects about 2-10 percent of adults & 15-30 percent of children during the course of their lifetimes. 60 percent of instances start to manifest within a year of the birth.

In contrast to metropolitan settings, atopic dermatitis is more prevalent in rural ones. This incident highlights the connection between environmental and lifestyle factors and AD mechanisms. Atopic dermatitis is a member of the “Atopic March” trio.

This relates to the correlation between individuals with asthma, allergic rhinitis, & atopic dermatitis. People with chronic atopic dermatitis have a 50 percent chance of developing asthma & a 75 percent chance of developing allergic rhinitis.

Atopic dermatitis has a hereditary component, according to research. The protein Filaggrin, which is essential for skin tissue maturity, has been found to have a frequent mutation. The rough, flattened corneocytes that make up the skin’s outermost layer of protection are produced by this gene.

The corneocytes are neatly arranged and densely packed in a patient with regular skin cells. Because of the disorganized arrangement of the skin cells, an individual with filaggrin mutations will have a defective protective barrier. Due to this malfunction, the skin barrier becomes “leaky,” enabling fluid loss & reducing protection from dangerous substances.

Additionally, the amount of beta-defensins in the epidermis is decreased in eczema patients. Host defense peptides called beta-defensins are essential for warding off specific fungi, bacteria, & viruses. Particularly with s. aureus, an increase in colonization and infection results from a reduction in such peptides.

Eczema patients have a malfunctioning barrier that contributes to a number of issues. For healthy skin hydration, the cells that comprise our epidermis are crucial. Dryness is a common symptom of eczema due to the breakdown of the barrier function. Dehydrated epidermis results from the skin’s increased ability to lose water.

Additionally, those who have eczema are more prone to illness. The malfunction allows harmful chemicals to easily infiltrate the skin. Atopic dermatitis patients frequently have an abnormally inflamed immune reaction, & their epidermis is sensitive to allergens and odors.

The majority of kids with eczema “grow out of” it by the time they reach adulthood. The persistence of the disease is higher in kids with earlier onset, more serious disease, and/or previously chronic disease.

clocortolone 

Apply lightly to the affected area three times daily
Discontinue the treatment if infection occurs due to occlusive dressing, and further initiate an antimicrobial therapy



tolnaftate, gentamicin, chinoform and betamethasone valerate 

Apply topical cream to the affected area twice a day



bufexamac 

Apply the 5% cream topically to the areas of affected skin



hydrocortisone acetate 

Indicated for eczema
Apply in small amounts on the affected area one time or two times daily
The treatment duration is seven days
Seek medical advice if, after seven days, there is still no improvement



hydrocortisone acetate 

Indicated for eczema
child ten years old and more
Apply in small amounts on the affected area one time or two times daily
The treatment duration is seven days
Seek medical advice if, after seven days, there is still no improvement



hydrocortisone acetate 

Indicated for eczema
Apply in small amounts on the affected area one time or two times daily
The treatment duration is seven days
Seek medical advice if, after seven days, there is still no improvement



https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538209/

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