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Leptospirosis

Updated : February 29, 2024





Background

Leptospirosis is a disease that affects both humans and animals. This is the most prevalent zoonotic illness worldwide. Leptospirosis is transferred by the urine of diseased animals, either directly or indirectly through infected water or soil.

It can create a self-limiting illness such as influenza or perhaps lead to a much more severe disease. This illness can potentially lead to multi organ failure and death. It’s also referred to as Weil disease.

Epidemiology

In temperate climates, leptospirosis usually occurs in the late summer or early fall, and in tropical areas, it usually occurs during the rainy season. In the tropics, the incidence of the disease is about tenfold that in temperate regions.

Due to the similarity of its symptoms to those of other diseases, it is often not reported, but the WHO estimates the presence of 873,000 cases and over 40,000 fatalities annually. There are between 100 and 200 identified cases every year in the US, with the majority being documented in Hawaii.

Anatomy

Pathophysiology

Leptospira is capable of invading mucous membranes and damaged skin. The infection is transmitted through contact with the infected body tissues or urine of infected animals. Leptospira can occasionally be transmitted through contact with polluted soil and water.

Historically, recreational water was the primary source of exposure in the US, but more recently, there has been a surge in cases among agricultural workers. On being excreted through the urine, in freshwater, these bacteria can survive for up to 16 days, and in soil, they can live for almost 24 days.

A human host can then become infected by water through the lungs, open wounds, and mucosal membranes. During the first two trimesters of pregnancy, it can also cause miscarriage in pregnant women.

If pregnant women are infected during the third trimester, an intrauterine death or stillbirth can occur. Once germs enter the body, they enter the lymphatic system and eventually the bloodstream.

The infection can travel throughout the body via the bloodstream, but it typically settles in the kidneys and the liver. It typically takes between 1-2 weeks for the patient to develop symptoms, but the gestation period could last for a month.

Etiology

Typically, it is transmitted by direct contact with the urine of sick animals or by contact with soil or water that is contaminated. Common Leptospirosis-carrying animals are farm animals such as pigs, cattle and horses as well as wild species such as raccoons, wild dogs, and porcupines.

160 animal species are vectors of this disease, but they exhibit no signs or symptoms of it. They can be disease vectors for several months following vaccination, sometimes without ever presenting any indications of infection.

Genetics

Prognostic Factors

Clinical History

Physical Examination

Age group

Associated comorbidity

Associated activity

Acuity of presentation

Differential Diagnoses

Laboratory Studies

Imaging Studies

Procedures

Histologic Findings

Staging

Treatment Paradigm

by Stage

by Modality

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Surgical Interventions

Hormone Therapy

Immunotherapy

Hyperthermia

Photodynamic Therapy

Stem Cell Transplant

Targeted Therapy

Palliative Care

Medication

Media Gallary

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441858/

Leptospirosis

Updated : February 29, 2024




Leptospirosis is a disease that affects both humans and animals. This is the most prevalent zoonotic illness worldwide. Leptospirosis is transferred by the urine of diseased animals, either directly or indirectly through infected water or soil.

It can create a self-limiting illness such as influenza or perhaps lead to a much more severe disease. This illness can potentially lead to multi organ failure and death. It’s also referred to as Weil disease.

In temperate climates, leptospirosis usually occurs in the late summer or early fall, and in tropical areas, it usually occurs during the rainy season. In the tropics, the incidence of the disease is about tenfold that in temperate regions.

Due to the similarity of its symptoms to those of other diseases, it is often not reported, but the WHO estimates the presence of 873,000 cases and over 40,000 fatalities annually. There are between 100 and 200 identified cases every year in the US, with the majority being documented in Hawaii.

Leptospira is capable of invading mucous membranes and damaged skin. The infection is transmitted through contact with the infected body tissues or urine of infected animals. Leptospira can occasionally be transmitted through contact with polluted soil and water.

Historically, recreational water was the primary source of exposure in the US, but more recently, there has been a surge in cases among agricultural workers. On being excreted through the urine, in freshwater, these bacteria can survive for up to 16 days, and in soil, they can live for almost 24 days.

A human host can then become infected by water through the lungs, open wounds, and mucosal membranes. During the first two trimesters of pregnancy, it can also cause miscarriage in pregnant women.

If pregnant women are infected during the third trimester, an intrauterine death or stillbirth can occur. Once germs enter the body, they enter the lymphatic system and eventually the bloodstream.

The infection can travel throughout the body via the bloodstream, but it typically settles in the kidneys and the liver. It typically takes between 1-2 weeks for the patient to develop symptoms, but the gestation period could last for a month.

Typically, it is transmitted by direct contact with the urine of sick animals or by contact with soil or water that is contaminated. Common Leptospirosis-carrying animals are farm animals such as pigs, cattle and horses as well as wild species such as raccoons, wild dogs, and porcupines.

160 animal species are vectors of this disease, but they exhibit no signs or symptoms of it. They can be disease vectors for several months following vaccination, sometimes without ever presenting any indications of infection.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441858/

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