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Oral Candidiasis

Updated : February 2, 2024





Background

Oral thrush is caused by Candida, which dwells in the mucosal membranes of the mouth. Candida albicans is a type of fungus that most frequently causes oral thrush. A white coating covering the mouth and throat is indicative of oral thrush.

The condition is typically brought on by immunological suppression, which can be local or systemic and includes advanced age, disorders that compromise immunity, such as HIV/AIDS, and long-term systemic steroid and antibiotic use.

An example of local immunosuppression is inhaled corticosteroids, frequently used as a prophylactic measure for managing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Epidemiology

Immunocompetent or immunocompromised individuals may develop oral candidiasis. Oral candidiasis affects more than 90% of HIV patients at some point throughout their disease course. Men and women both encounter oral candidiasis. It usually occurs in newborns and infants, uncommon in the first week of life.

Due to the host immune system developing, it is less prevalent in infants older than six months and occurs most frequently around the fourth week of life. In these individuals, immunosuppression manifests as hepatosplenomegaly, diarrhea, rashes, and recurrent infections.

Anatomy

Pathophysiology

Oral candidiasis is caused by Candida species when the host immunity is compromised. Localized disruption due to oral corticosteroid use is possible. A pseudomembrane then develops as a result of fungal overgrowth. Neonates can become colonized with vaginal infections as they transit through the birth canal.

Also, newborns and infants may acquire the disease from infected breasts when nursing. An oral infection in a patient frequently causes GI involvement and consequent candidal diaper dermatitis. Candidal species develop under humid conditions. As a result, females may also develop vaginal candidiasis.

The immune system and healthy bacterial flora of healthy individuals prevent candida development. As a result, the condition is frequently brought on by immunosuppression, including diabetes, dentures, steroid use, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, and recent antibiotic use.

Etiology

Chemotherapy can harm mucosal membranes and impair immunological function, making it easier for the fungus to spread. Oral thrush risk is also increased by radiotherapy in the head and neck area.

Oral thrush is more likely to develop the more aggressively it is treated. Dentures, diabetes, and broad-spectrum antibiotics can also exacerbate oral thrush.

Weakening the body and immune system makes infections more prone to happen. For instance, HIV/AIDS may be the cause of this. Elderly adults who need nursing care are usually highly vulnerable, and those who consume less food and liquids or are tube-fed can also get oral thrush.

Genetics

Prognostic Factors

If oral candidiasis is treated properly and effectively, the prognosis is good. Patients who relapse frequently do so due to poor adherence to therapy, improper removal and cleaning of dentures, or an inability to address any underlying or predisposing causes of infection.

Clinical History

Physical Examination

Age group

Associated comorbidity

Associated activity

Acuity of presentation

Differential Diagnoses

Laboratory Studies

Imaging Studies

Procedures

Histologic Findings

Staging

Treatment Paradigm

by Stage

by Modality

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Surgical Interventions

Hormone Therapy

Immunotherapy

Hyperthermia

Photodynamic Therapy

Stem Cell Transplant

Targeted Therapy

Palliative Care

Medication

 

gentian violet 

Infants:
For a Maximum duration of up to three days, gently apply a small amount of topical solution (available in 0.5%-1% concentrations) to the affected area, either on the oral lesion or under the tongue
Use this solution one time or two time every day
Children and Adolescents
gently apply a topical solution with a concentration ranging from (0.5%- 2%) two times every day to the affected area



 

Media Gallary

References

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545282/

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK367586/

Oral Candidiasis

Updated : February 2, 2024




Oral thrush is caused by Candida, which dwells in the mucosal membranes of the mouth. Candida albicans is a type of fungus that most frequently causes oral thrush. A white coating covering the mouth and throat is indicative of oral thrush.

The condition is typically brought on by immunological suppression, which can be local or systemic and includes advanced age, disorders that compromise immunity, such as HIV/AIDS, and long-term systemic steroid and antibiotic use.

An example of local immunosuppression is inhaled corticosteroids, frequently used as a prophylactic measure for managing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Immunocompetent or immunocompromised individuals may develop oral candidiasis. Oral candidiasis affects more than 90% of HIV patients at some point throughout their disease course. Men and women both encounter oral candidiasis. It usually occurs in newborns and infants, uncommon in the first week of life.

Due to the host immune system developing, it is less prevalent in infants older than six months and occurs most frequently around the fourth week of life. In these individuals, immunosuppression manifests as hepatosplenomegaly, diarrhea, rashes, and recurrent infections.

Oral candidiasis is caused by Candida species when the host immunity is compromised. Localized disruption due to oral corticosteroid use is possible. A pseudomembrane then develops as a result of fungal overgrowth. Neonates can become colonized with vaginal infections as they transit through the birth canal.

Also, newborns and infants may acquire the disease from infected breasts when nursing. An oral infection in a patient frequently causes GI involvement and consequent candidal diaper dermatitis. Candidal species develop under humid conditions. As a result, females may also develop vaginal candidiasis.

The immune system and healthy bacterial flora of healthy individuals prevent candida development. As a result, the condition is frequently brought on by immunosuppression, including diabetes, dentures, steroid use, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, and recent antibiotic use.

Chemotherapy can harm mucosal membranes and impair immunological function, making it easier for the fungus to spread. Oral thrush risk is also increased by radiotherapy in the head and neck area.

Oral thrush is more likely to develop the more aggressively it is treated. Dentures, diabetes, and broad-spectrum antibiotics can also exacerbate oral thrush.

Weakening the body and immune system makes infections more prone to happen. For instance, HIV/AIDS may be the cause of this. Elderly adults who need nursing care are usually highly vulnerable, and those who consume less food and liquids or are tube-fed can also get oral thrush.

If oral candidiasis is treated properly and effectively, the prognosis is good. Patients who relapse frequently do so due to poor adherence to therapy, improper removal and cleaning of dentures, or an inability to address any underlying or predisposing causes of infection.

gentian violet 

Infants:
For a Maximum duration of up to three days, gently apply a small amount of topical solution (available in 0.5%-1% concentrations) to the affected area, either on the oral lesion or under the tongue
Use this solution one time or two time every day
Children and Adolescents
gently apply a topical solution with a concentration ranging from (0.5%- 2%) two times every day to the affected area



www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545282/

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK367586/

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