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Parvovirus B19

Updated : February 27, 2024





Background

Parvovirus B19 is an icosahedral virus with a single-stranded, linear DNA genome. This virus exclusively affects humans. It is known that this virus causes fifth illness, also known as slapped cheek syndrome or erythema infectiosum, which primarily affects young children but can potentially affect adults.

In addition, it can cause aplastic crises in individuals who are affected with some forms of anemia; polyarthropathy, papular purpuric glove and socks syndrome in young individuals; and hydrops fetalis in pregnant women. The virus is transmitted through blood and respiratory secretions. An infected pregnant women can transmit this illness to the child.

Epidemiology

Infection with Parvovirus B19 is widespread and particularly prevalent among school-aged children.

In affluent countries, the prevalence of parvovirus B19 in children below the age of 5 is between 2%-10%, 40%-60% in individuals over the age of 20, and 85% or higher in those older than 70 years.

Parvovirus B19 infections are more prevalent in early spring, early summer and late winter. Every 3-4 years, small outbreaks of the parvovirus B19 occur.

Anatomy

Pathophysiology

Parvovirus B19 enters the respiratory tract after binding to the receptors found on host cells. It subsequently translocates its genome into the nucleus of the host, where processes such as DNA replication, RNA transcription, and virus assembly occur.

The cells then lyse and release mature virions. Patients develop a predrome of symptoms as a result of viremia. When the viremia settles — approximately eight to ten days post-inoculation, the IgM antibody is found.

7-10 days of reticulocytopenia occur during the viremic phase. IgG antibodies occur one week following IgM antibodies, accompanied by a rash and arthralgia.

Parvovirus is endemic to bone marrow and replicates in progenitors to erythroid cells. The cellular receptor for the parvovirus B19 is the P-anitgen, and it causes erythema infectiosum in children.

Etiology

The paravirus B19 is an icosahedral, non-enveloped virus with a single-stranded linear DNA molecule. As the virus can only infect humans, there’s no animal to human transmission.

Genetics

Prognostic Factors

Erythema infectiosum is typically moderate in healthy individuals. Although it may cause severe complications in immunocompromised individuals.

Some patients may develop chronic anemia on infection. After contracting erythema infectiosum, the individual develops permanent immunity from this illness.

Clinical History

Physical Examination

Age group

Associated comorbidity

Associated activity

Acuity of presentation

Differential Diagnoses

Laboratory Studies

Imaging Studies

Procedures

Histologic Findings

Staging

Treatment Paradigm

by Stage

by Modality

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Surgical Interventions

Hormone Therapy

Immunotherapy

Hyperthermia

Photodynamic Therapy

Stem Cell Transplant

Targeted Therapy

Palliative Care

Medication

Media Gallary

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482245/

Parvovirus B19

Updated : February 27, 2024




Parvovirus B19 is an icosahedral virus with a single-stranded, linear DNA genome. This virus exclusively affects humans. It is known that this virus causes fifth illness, also known as slapped cheek syndrome or erythema infectiosum, which primarily affects young children but can potentially affect adults.

In addition, it can cause aplastic crises in individuals who are affected with some forms of anemia; polyarthropathy, papular purpuric glove and socks syndrome in young individuals; and hydrops fetalis in pregnant women. The virus is transmitted through blood and respiratory secretions. An infected pregnant women can transmit this illness to the child.

Infection with Parvovirus B19 is widespread and particularly prevalent among school-aged children.

In affluent countries, the prevalence of parvovirus B19 in children below the age of 5 is between 2%-10%, 40%-60% in individuals over the age of 20, and 85% or higher in those older than 70 years.

Parvovirus B19 infections are more prevalent in early spring, early summer and late winter. Every 3-4 years, small outbreaks of the parvovirus B19 occur.

Parvovirus B19 enters the respiratory tract after binding to the receptors found on host cells. It subsequently translocates its genome into the nucleus of the host, where processes such as DNA replication, RNA transcription, and virus assembly occur.

The cells then lyse and release mature virions. Patients develop a predrome of symptoms as a result of viremia. When the viremia settles — approximately eight to ten days post-inoculation, the IgM antibody is found.

7-10 days of reticulocytopenia occur during the viremic phase. IgG antibodies occur one week following IgM antibodies, accompanied by a rash and arthralgia.

Parvovirus is endemic to bone marrow and replicates in progenitors to erythroid cells. The cellular receptor for the parvovirus B19 is the P-anitgen, and it causes erythema infectiosum in children.

The paravirus B19 is an icosahedral, non-enveloped virus with a single-stranded linear DNA molecule. As the virus can only infect humans, there’s no animal to human transmission.

Erythema infectiosum is typically moderate in healthy individuals. Although it may cause severe complications in immunocompromised individuals.

Some patients may develop chronic anemia on infection. After contracting erythema infectiosum, the individual develops permanent immunity from this illness.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482245/