fbpx

Pneumonia

Updated : July 21, 2022





Background

Epidemiology

Anatomy

Pathophysiology

Etiology

Genetics

Prognostic Factors

Clinical History

Physical Examination

Age group

Associated comorbidity

Associated activity

Acuity of presentation

Differential Diagnoses

Laboratory Studies

Imaging Studies

Procedures

Histologic Findings

Staging

Treatment Paradigm

by Stage

by Modality

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Surgical Interventions

Hormone Therapy

Immunotherapy

Hyperthermia

Photodynamic Therapy

Stem Cell Transplant

Targeted Therapy

Palliative Care

Medication

 

cefotaxime

1 g IM or IV given every 12hrs for mild conditions
1-2 g IM or IV every 8hrs moderate to severe infections
2 g IV every 6-8hrs high dosing for infections
2 g IV every 4hrs for life-threatening infections
12 g is the maximum dose required per day



cefotetan

1-2 g IV or IM every 12hrs for moderate infections
2 g IV every 12hrs for Severe infections
3 g IV every 12hrs for Life-threatening infections
The maximum duration of therapy is seven days



omadacycline

Loading Dose: 200 mg via IV infusion for 1 hour on day 1 or 100 mg via IV infusion for 30mins two times on day 1 or 300 mg orally two times on day 1
Maintenance Dose: 100 mg via IV infusion for 30mins per day or 300 mg orally per day
the maximum duration of treatment is 7-14 days



cefaclor

500

mg

Tablet

Orally 

every 8 hrs

5

days

Extend the therapy duration as per vital signs



ceftriaxone

1-2 g IV or IM was given once a day or in equally divided doses 2x a day
maximum duration of therapy is 4-14 days
prolonged treatment recommends for complicated infections
At least treatment given ten days for diseases due to streptococcus



telithromycin 

800

mg

Orally 

once a day

7 - 10

days



amoxicillin 

500

mg

2 times a day or 1 g daily

10

days


ER: 775 mg daily for 10 days



penicillin G benzathine 

1.2 million units given IM daily as a single dose



erythromycin ethylsuccinate 

400

mg

Orally 

divided in to 2 times a day

10

days



clarithromycin 

Indicated for Streptococcal pharyngitis:


250 mg oral tablet immediate release twice a day for 14 days



clarithromycin 

500 mg oral tablet immediate release twice a day for a minimum of 5 days



cephalexin 

250

mg

Capsule

Orally 

every 6 hrs



cefadroxil 

1

g

orally

daily

10

days


Note: indicated for pharyngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci



azithromycin 

500 mg orally once a day, followed by 250 mg 4 times a day, on the 2nd to 5th day.



penicillin VK 

125 - 250

mg

Orally 

every 8 hrs

10

days



aztreonam 

1-2g intramuscular or intravenous every 8 to 12 hours
Do not exceed 8g/day



cefditoren 

Take 400 mg orally after every 12 hours up to 14 days. Take 200 mg orally after every 12 hours up to 10 days
Renal Impairment For creatinine clearance of 30 to 49 ml/minute/1.73 square meter: maximum up to 200 mg orally after every 12 hours For creatinine clearance of <30 ml/minute/1.73/square meter: every day 200 mg orally End-stage: dose not determined yet



solithromycin 

Pending for FDA approval



cefoperazone 

1 to 2 grams intravenous/intramuscular given every 2 times a day



roxithromycin 

300 mg in single dose or two divided doses every day



cefamandole 

Administer dose of 500 mg intramuscularly or intravenously every 6 hours



loracarbef 

Mild-moderate- Take 400 mg two times a day for two weeks by oral route



faropenem medoxomil 

200 mg taken orally 3 times a day for two weeks



pheneticillin 

Take oral dose as per physicians advised



cefetamet 

Indicated for Pneumonia, Tracheobronchitis, Urinary tract infections:


Administer 500mg to 1g twice a day.



ceftizoxime 

The usual dose for the treatment of pneumonia is 1 to 4 g via Intravenous or Intramuscular administration two or four times a day for up to 7 or 21 days
The duration of the treatment depends on the severity and the nature of the infections. If the infection is severe, the dose can be increased up to 12 g per day



Dose Adjustments

Renal Dose Adjustment
In case of renal insufficiency, the usual dose of ceftizoxime depends on the CrCl. If the CrCl is below 5 mL/min, then 0.25-0.5 g a day or 0.5-1 g via IV or IM in 2 days after undergoing dialysis. Loading dose is standard in renal insufficiency, which is 0.5-1 g. 0.25 -1g twice a day if CrCl falls between 5 and 49 mL/min and 0.5 – 1.5 g thrice a day if CrCl is between 50 and 79 mL/min

dirithromycin 

500 mg is given orally once every day for two weeks



amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 

Indicated for Aspirational pneumonia
:

500 mg orally 3 times a day or 875 mg orally 2 times a day
Depending on the type and severity of the infection, therapy should be continued until the infiltrate is removed or a residual scar forms, which could take up to four months



 

amoxicillin 

Children and Adolescents:  :


50 mg/kg/day orally daily or in divided doses 2 times a day for 10 days; may be increase up to 1,000 mg/day
  ER: 775 mg orally daily for 10 days 



penicillin v 

Age > 12 years:

125 - 250

mg

Orally 

every 6-8 hrs

10

days



penicillin G benzathine 

wt <27 kg: 600,000 U IM daily
wt > 27 kg: 1.2 million U IM daily



cefadroxil 

30

mg/kg

orally

daily



clindamycin 

Indicated for Streptococcal Pharyngitis:

20-30 mg/kg/day orally divided 3 times for Chronic carrier treatment
7 mg/kg/dose 3 times daily for 10 days for Acute treatment



cephalexin 

25 - 50

mg/kg

Capsule

Orally 

every 8 hrs

10

days



aztreonam 

≤7 days:
<2kg bodyweight: 30mg/kg intravenous every 12 hours
>2 kg bodyweight: 30mg/kg intravenous every 8 hours

8 to 30 days:
<1.2kg: 30mg/kg intravenous every 12 hours
1.2kg-2kg: 30mg/kg intravenous every 8 hours
>2kg: 30mg/kg intravenous every 6 hours
1 to 18 years: 30mg/kg intravenous every 6-8 hours



doxycycline 

Children >8 years and adolescents:

1 to 2 mg/kg per dose twice a day for 10 days



solithromycin 

Pending for FDA approval



roxithromycin 

Children up to 12 years: 5 to 8 mg/kg in two divided doses every day; maximum dose: 150 mg 2 times a day



cefamandole 

for infants and Children:
Administer daily dose of 50 to 100 mg/kg intramuscularly or intravenously divided doses every 4 to 8 hours



bacitracin 

If the child's weight falls below 2.5 kg, give 900/units/kg/day Intramuscular injection twice daily
If the weight falls above 2.5 kg, give 1000 units/kg/day Intramuscular injection twice daily
For children, administer 800-1200 units/kg/day three times a day



pheneticillin 

For 13 to 18 years old:
Take oral dose as per physicians advised



dirithromycin 

above 12 years: 500 mg is given orally once every day for two weeks



amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 

Age: < 3 months
For infants under 12 weeks:
Administer 15 mg per kilogram orally 2 times daily with 125 mg/5 mL oral suspension

Age: >3 months
For children weighing less than 40 kg:
With 125 mg/5 mL or 250 mg/5 mL oral suspension, administer orally 3 times daily at a dosage range of 6.67 to 13.33 mg per kilogram
With 200 mg/5 mL or 400 mg/5 mL oral suspension or chewable tablets, administer orally 2 times daily at a dosage range of 12.5 to 22.5 mg per kilogram

For children weighing 40 kg or more:
Immediate release tablets: Administer 500 mg orally every 8 hours or 875 mg orally 2 times daily
Extended release tablets: 2 g orally 2 times daily for 7 to 10 days in cases of community-acquired pneumonia



 

solithromycin 

Pending for FDA approval



Media Gallary

References

Pneumonia

Updated : July 21, 2022




cefotaxime

1 g IM or IV given every 12hrs for mild conditions
1-2 g IM or IV every 8hrs moderate to severe infections
2 g IV every 6-8hrs high dosing for infections
2 g IV every 4hrs for life-threatening infections
12 g is the maximum dose required per day



cefotetan

1-2 g IV or IM every 12hrs for moderate infections
2 g IV every 12hrs for Severe infections
3 g IV every 12hrs for Life-threatening infections
The maximum duration of therapy is seven days



omadacycline

Loading Dose: 200 mg via IV infusion for 1 hour on day 1 or 100 mg via IV infusion for 30mins two times on day 1 or 300 mg orally two times on day 1
Maintenance Dose: 100 mg via IV infusion for 30mins per day or 300 mg orally per day
the maximum duration of treatment is 7-14 days



cefaclor

500

mg

Tablet

Orally 

every 8 hrs

5

days

Extend the therapy duration as per vital signs



ceftriaxone

1-2 g IV or IM was given once a day or in equally divided doses 2x a day
maximum duration of therapy is 4-14 days
prolonged treatment recommends for complicated infections
At least treatment given ten days for diseases due to streptococcus



telithromycin 

800

mg

Orally 

once a day

7 - 10

days



amoxicillin 

500

mg

2 times a day or 1 g daily

10

days


ER: 775 mg daily for 10 days



penicillin G benzathine 

1.2 million units given IM daily as a single dose



erythromycin ethylsuccinate 

400

mg

Orally 

divided in to 2 times a day

10

days



clarithromycin 

Indicated for Streptococcal pharyngitis:


250 mg oral tablet immediate release twice a day for 14 days



clarithromycin 

500 mg oral tablet immediate release twice a day for a minimum of 5 days



cephalexin 

250

mg

Capsule

Orally 

every 6 hrs



cefadroxil 

1

g

orally

daily

10

days


Note: indicated for pharyngitis and tonsillitis caused by Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci



azithromycin 

500 mg orally once a day, followed by 250 mg 4 times a day, on the 2nd to 5th day.



penicillin VK 

125 - 250

mg

Orally 

every 8 hrs

10

days



aztreonam 

1-2g intramuscular or intravenous every 8 to 12 hours
Do not exceed 8g/day



cefditoren 

Take 400 mg orally after every 12 hours up to 14 days. Take 200 mg orally after every 12 hours up to 10 days
Renal Impairment For creatinine clearance of 30 to 49 ml/minute/1.73 square meter: maximum up to 200 mg orally after every 12 hours For creatinine clearance of <30 ml/minute/1.73/square meter: every day 200 mg orally End-stage: dose not determined yet



solithromycin 

Pending for FDA approval



cefoperazone 

1 to 2 grams intravenous/intramuscular given every 2 times a day



roxithromycin 

300 mg in single dose or two divided doses every day



cefamandole 

Administer dose of 500 mg intramuscularly or intravenously every 6 hours



loracarbef 

Mild-moderate- Take 400 mg two times a day for two weeks by oral route



faropenem medoxomil 

200 mg taken orally 3 times a day for two weeks



pheneticillin 

Take oral dose as per physicians advised



cefetamet 

Indicated for Pneumonia, Tracheobronchitis, Urinary tract infections:


Administer 500mg to 1g twice a day.



ceftizoxime 

The usual dose for the treatment of pneumonia is 1 to 4 g via Intravenous or Intramuscular administration two or four times a day for up to 7 or 21 days
The duration of the treatment depends on the severity and the nature of the infections. If the infection is severe, the dose can be increased up to 12 g per day



Dose Adjustments

Renal Dose Adjustment
In case of renal insufficiency, the usual dose of ceftizoxime depends on the CrCl. If the CrCl is below 5 mL/min, then 0.25-0.5 g a day or 0.5-1 g via IV or IM in 2 days after undergoing dialysis. Loading dose is standard in renal insufficiency, which is 0.5-1 g. 0.25 -1g twice a day if CrCl falls between 5 and 49 mL/min and 0.5 – 1.5 g thrice a day if CrCl is between 50 and 79 mL/min

dirithromycin 

500 mg is given orally once every day for two weeks



amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 

Indicated for Aspirational pneumonia
:

500 mg orally 3 times a day or 875 mg orally 2 times a day
Depending on the type and severity of the infection, therapy should be continued until the infiltrate is removed or a residual scar forms, which could take up to four months



amoxicillin 

Children and Adolescents:  :


50 mg/kg/day orally daily or in divided doses 2 times a day for 10 days; may be increase up to 1,000 mg/day
  ER: 775 mg orally daily for 10 days 



penicillin v 

Age > 12 years:

125 - 250

mg

Orally 

every 6-8 hrs

10

days



penicillin G benzathine 

wt <27 kg: 600,000 U IM daily
wt > 27 kg: 1.2 million U IM daily



cefadroxil 

30

mg/kg

orally

daily



clindamycin 

Indicated for Streptococcal Pharyngitis:

20-30 mg/kg/day orally divided 3 times for Chronic carrier treatment
7 mg/kg/dose 3 times daily for 10 days for Acute treatment



cephalexin 

25 - 50

mg/kg

Capsule

Orally 

every 8 hrs

10

days



aztreonam 

≤7 days:
<2kg bodyweight: 30mg/kg intravenous every 12 hours
>2 kg bodyweight: 30mg/kg intravenous every 8 hours

8 to 30 days:
<1.2kg: 30mg/kg intravenous every 12 hours
1.2kg-2kg: 30mg/kg intravenous every 8 hours
>2kg: 30mg/kg intravenous every 6 hours
1 to 18 years: 30mg/kg intravenous every 6-8 hours



doxycycline 

Children >8 years and adolescents:

1 to 2 mg/kg per dose twice a day for 10 days



solithromycin 

Pending for FDA approval



roxithromycin 

Children up to 12 years: 5 to 8 mg/kg in two divided doses every day; maximum dose: 150 mg 2 times a day



cefamandole 

for infants and Children:
Administer daily dose of 50 to 100 mg/kg intramuscularly or intravenously divided doses every 4 to 8 hours



bacitracin 

If the child's weight falls below 2.5 kg, give 900/units/kg/day Intramuscular injection twice daily
If the weight falls above 2.5 kg, give 1000 units/kg/day Intramuscular injection twice daily
For children, administer 800-1200 units/kg/day three times a day



pheneticillin 

For 13 to 18 years old:
Take oral dose as per physicians advised



dirithromycin 

above 12 years: 500 mg is given orally once every day for two weeks



amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 

Age: < 3 months
For infants under 12 weeks:
Administer 15 mg per kilogram orally 2 times daily with 125 mg/5 mL oral suspension

Age: >3 months
For children weighing less than 40 kg:
With 125 mg/5 mL or 250 mg/5 mL oral suspension, administer orally 3 times daily at a dosage range of 6.67 to 13.33 mg per kilogram
With 200 mg/5 mL or 400 mg/5 mL oral suspension or chewable tablets, administer orally 2 times daily at a dosage range of 12.5 to 22.5 mg per kilogram

For children weighing 40 kg or more:
Immediate release tablets: Administer 500 mg orally every 8 hours or 875 mg orally 2 times daily
Extended release tablets: 2 g orally 2 times daily for 7 to 10 days in cases of community-acquired pneumonia



solithromycin 

Pending for FDA approval



Free CME credits

Both our subscription plans include Free CME/CPD AMA PRA Category 1 credits.

Digital Certificate PDF

On course completion, you will receive a full-sized presentation quality digital certificate.

medtigo Simulation

A dynamic medical simulation platform designed to train healthcare professionals and students to effectively run code situations through an immersive hands-on experience in a live, interactive 3D environment.

medtigo Points

medtigo points is our unique point redemption system created to award users for interacting on our site. These points can be redeemed for special discounts on the medtigo marketplace as well as towards the membership cost itself.
 
  • Registration with medtigo = 10 points
  • 1 visit to medtigo’s website = 1 point
  • Interacting with medtigo posts (through comments/clinical cases etc.) = 5 points
  • Attempting a game = 1 point
  • Community Forum post/reply = 5 points

    *Redemption of points can occur only through the medtigo marketplace, courses, or simulation system. Money will not be credited to your bank account. 10 points = $1.

All Your Certificates in One Place

When you have your licenses, certificates and CMEs in one place, it's easier to track your career growth. You can easily share these with hospitals as well, using your medtigo app.

Our Certificate Courses

Up arrow