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Scurvy

Updated : February 20, 2024





Background

Scurvy is a clinical illness brought on by a lack of vitamin C. The sickness became well-known because of stories from pirates and British divers. In 1550 BC, this illness was first noted when individuals used onions and vegetables to precisely describe the treatment and diagnosis.

Hippocrates gave the condition the medical name “ileos ematitis,” describing it as having “a poor mouth, gums that are separated from the teeth, and bleeding from the nostrils… Leg ulcers: Some of these become better… the skin is delicate”.

James Lind of the British Royal Navy discovered in the 1700s that eating oranges and lemons caused the condition to go into remission. In 1927, the molecule of an ascorbic component was revealed, and shortly after that, ascorbic acid, now known as vitamin C, was made.

If ascorbic acid intake is stopped, the body’s store of the vitamin normally runs out in four to twelve weeks. Numerous things that can harm ascorbic acid’s activities and absorption have an impact on it. Consuming fruits and vegetables frequently are the greatest approach to avoiding ascorbic acid shortage.

Epidemiology

A blood concentration of less than 11.4 umol/L is considered to be deficient in vitamin C, though prevalence rates vary greatly from country to country, with rates as low as 7.1% in the Us and as greater as 73.9% in northern India.

Alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, low wage, male sex, hemodialysis patients, and individuals with generally low nutritional health are potential causes of insufficiency.

Even in affluent nations, vitamin C insufficiency is widespread, yet overt scurvy is uncommon. Infantile frequency is also rare because appropriate sources include both breast milk and supplemented formula.

Anatomy

Pathophysiology

Scurvy is a clinical symptom of a serious deficiency in vitamin C and is brought on by the involvement of ascorbic acid in collagen production. Skin, capillary walls, and notably the outer membrane region dividing the epidermal out from the dermis are primarily made of type 4 collagen.

Pro-collagen can be hydroxylated and then cross-linked with the help of vitamin C, which is catalyzed by procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenases (lysyl hydroxylase). Vitamin C deficiency reduces procollagen molecule transcription.

Ascorbic acid is also necessary for epigenetic Deoxyribonucleic acid hypermethylation, which prevents the transcription of different types of collagen present in skin, blood vessels, and tissue.

Hemorrhage, which might happen in practically any organ, is the main symptom of scurvy. Additionally, the creation of bones is changed and then becomes fragile.

Etiology

Many animals don’t need extra vitamin C. But vitamin C is a necessary nutrient for humanity. Since L-gulonolactone oxidase (GULO) is not produced by humans, it must be consumed. Therefore, a lack of dietary intake has been a major contributor to vitamin C insufficiency and related symptoms.

Fresh vegetables and fruits such as spinach, red peppers, potatoes, tomatoes, and broccoli, as well as grapefruits, oranges, lemons, and limes, naturally contain vitamin C. Fruits and vegetables contribute up to 90percent of vitamin C consumption. The most prevalent cause of the insufficiency has been an absence of exposure to all these foodstuffs. Due to the heat sensitivity of vitamin C, cooking or boiling traditionally removes the nutritional value.

Adrenal glands, leukocytes, and the pituitary all contain trace amounts of vitamin C, but because the body doesn’t store much of it, plasma levels are mostly dependent on recent consumption. The body stores 1500 mg of vitamin C in total, and once that amount drops to fewer than 350 mg, clinical signs of deficiency appear.

Vitamin C insufficiency stressors include:

  • Alcohol addiction
  • Infants are solely given cow’s milk
  • Seniors who only eat toast and tea
  • People with limited incomes who cannot possibly spend on fruits and veggies
  • People who smoke
  • Eating disorder sufferers
  • Individuals who have diabetes type 1 need a lot of vitamin C.
  • People who suffer from gastrointestinal diseases like IBD (inflammatory bowel disease)
  • People with iron excess, which causes the kidneys to waste vitamin C
  • Those who follow strict diets or have food intolerances

Genetics

Prognostic Factors

Clinical History

Physical Examination

Age group

Associated comorbidity

Associated activity

Acuity of presentation

Differential Diagnoses

Laboratory Studies

Imaging Studies

Procedures

Histologic Findings

Staging

Treatment Paradigm

by Stage

by Modality

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Surgical Interventions

Hormone Therapy

Immunotherapy

Hyperthermia

Photodynamic Therapy

Stem Cell Transplant

Targeted Therapy

Palliative Care

Medication

 

rose hips 

Tea
Infuse 2 to 2.5 grams of crushed rose hips in 150 ml boiling water for 10 to 15 minutes, then filter the liquid before consumingSupplement
500 to 750 mg daily, preferably taken with food



beta carotene/vitamin C/minerals 

Take daily one capsule orally



 

beta carotene/vitamin C/minerals 

For 13 to 18 years old:
Take daily one capsule orally



 

Media Gallary

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493187/

Scurvy

Updated : February 20, 2024




Scurvy is a clinical illness brought on by a lack of vitamin C. The sickness became well-known because of stories from pirates and British divers. In 1550 BC, this illness was first noted when individuals used onions and vegetables to precisely describe the treatment and diagnosis.

Hippocrates gave the condition the medical name “ileos ematitis,” describing it as having “a poor mouth, gums that are separated from the teeth, and bleeding from the nostrils… Leg ulcers: Some of these become better… the skin is delicate”.

James Lind of the British Royal Navy discovered in the 1700s that eating oranges and lemons caused the condition to go into remission. In 1927, the molecule of an ascorbic component was revealed, and shortly after that, ascorbic acid, now known as vitamin C, was made.

If ascorbic acid intake is stopped, the body’s store of the vitamin normally runs out in four to twelve weeks. Numerous things that can harm ascorbic acid’s activities and absorption have an impact on it. Consuming fruits and vegetables frequently are the greatest approach to avoiding ascorbic acid shortage.

A blood concentration of less than 11.4 umol/L is considered to be deficient in vitamin C, though prevalence rates vary greatly from country to country, with rates as low as 7.1% in the Us and as greater as 73.9% in northern India.

Alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, low wage, male sex, hemodialysis patients, and individuals with generally low nutritional health are potential causes of insufficiency.

Even in affluent nations, vitamin C insufficiency is widespread, yet overt scurvy is uncommon. Infantile frequency is also rare because appropriate sources include both breast milk and supplemented formula.

Scurvy is a clinical symptom of a serious deficiency in vitamin C and is brought on by the involvement of ascorbic acid in collagen production. Skin, capillary walls, and notably the outer membrane region dividing the epidermal out from the dermis are primarily made of type 4 collagen.

Pro-collagen can be hydroxylated and then cross-linked with the help of vitamin C, which is catalyzed by procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenases (lysyl hydroxylase). Vitamin C deficiency reduces procollagen molecule transcription.

Ascorbic acid is also necessary for epigenetic Deoxyribonucleic acid hypermethylation, which prevents the transcription of different types of collagen present in skin, blood vessels, and tissue.

Hemorrhage, which might happen in practically any organ, is the main symptom of scurvy. Additionally, the creation of bones is changed and then becomes fragile.

Many animals don’t need extra vitamin C. But vitamin C is a necessary nutrient for humanity. Since L-gulonolactone oxidase (GULO) is not produced by humans, it must be consumed. Therefore, a lack of dietary intake has been a major contributor to vitamin C insufficiency and related symptoms.

Fresh vegetables and fruits such as spinach, red peppers, potatoes, tomatoes, and broccoli, as well as grapefruits, oranges, lemons, and limes, naturally contain vitamin C. Fruits and vegetables contribute up to 90percent of vitamin C consumption. The most prevalent cause of the insufficiency has been an absence of exposure to all these foodstuffs. Due to the heat sensitivity of vitamin C, cooking or boiling traditionally removes the nutritional value.

Adrenal glands, leukocytes, and the pituitary all contain trace amounts of vitamin C, but because the body doesn’t store much of it, plasma levels are mostly dependent on recent consumption. The body stores 1500 mg of vitamin C in total, and once that amount drops to fewer than 350 mg, clinical signs of deficiency appear.

Vitamin C insufficiency stressors include:

  • Alcohol addiction
  • Infants are solely given cow’s milk
  • Seniors who only eat toast and tea
  • People with limited incomes who cannot possibly spend on fruits and veggies
  • People who smoke
  • Eating disorder sufferers
  • Individuals who have diabetes type 1 need a lot of vitamin C.
  • People who suffer from gastrointestinal diseases like IBD (inflammatory bowel disease)
  • People with iron excess, which causes the kidneys to waste vitamin C
  • Those who follow strict diets or have food intolerances

rose hips 

Tea
Infuse 2 to 2.5 grams of crushed rose hips in 150 ml boiling water for 10 to 15 minutes, then filter the liquid before consumingSupplement
500 to 750 mg daily, preferably taken with food



beta carotene/vitamin C/minerals 

Take daily one capsule orally



beta carotene/vitamin C/minerals 

For 13 to 18 years old:
Take daily one capsule orally



https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493187/