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Telogen Effluvium

Updated : August 22, 2023





Background

A kind of non-scarring alopecia known as telogen effluvium is characterised by broad, frequently abrupt hair loss. There is also a different chronic type with a sneakier beginning. Telogen effluvium is the excessive loss of dormant or telogen hairline as a result of medicine, hormone imbalances, or metabolic stress.

Due to the structure of the root, telogen hair is often referred to as club hairs. Approximately 85% of the hair on the scalp of an average, healthy individual is anagen, while 15% is telogen. Telogen hair are dormant hair while anagen hair are hair that are growing at a rate. There might also be a little hair in catagen.

An average hair follicle produces anagen hairs for about 4 years before going dormant for approximately 4 months. Under the telogen hair that is dormant, a new anagen hair starts to grow & push it out. 70 percent of anagen hair can precipitated into the telogen period, which results in loss of hair, if the body is under any form of stress.

Epidemiology

Any time of life, any sexuality, and anyone from any race can develop telogen effluvium. Telogen effluvium is thought to be relatively frequent, while its actual prevalence is unknown. A significant portion of adults eventually go through a telogen effluvium episode.

Telogen effluvium can affect both sexes, however due to hormonal changes after childbirth, women are more likely to have this illness. Women are also more prone to seek medical assistance since they are more bothered by hair loss than males are.

Anatomy

Pathophysiology

When physiological stress causes a significant quantity of hairs in the anagen phase of the hair cycle to suddenly move to telogen/resting phase, this condition is known as telogen effluvium. The telogen hair stop growing for one to six months (on average three months), yet the patient is unaware of this growth halt.

The hairs that had been suspended in the telogen (resting phase) are extruded from the follicles whenever the hairs enter the anagen (growth period), & hair loss is evident.

Etiology

Telogen effluvium is a continuous activity that can be brought on by medicine, hormone levels, or metabolic disturbances. Acute febrile infections, major surgeries, serious infections, postpartum hormone imbalances, severe trauma, hypothyroidism, notably a drop in oestrogen, stopping estrogen-containing medications, poor protein intake, crash dieting, heavy metal intake, & iron deficit are common triggers.

Retinoids (particularly excessive vitamin A), Beta-blockers, anticoagulants, carbamazepine, propylthiouracil & vaccinations are the most often associated drugs with telogen effluvium.

Genetics

Prognostic Factors

Morbidity is typically restricted to minor alterations in appearance. There have been no reports of deaths.

  • Telogen effluvium has a significant effect on persons who have the condition.
  • Acute telogen effluvium has a fair recovery outlook for hair density.
  • Even if the hair loss persists in persistent telogen effluvium, a positive cosmetic result is still anticipated.

Clinical History

Physical Examination

Age group

Associated comorbidity

Associated activity

Acuity of presentation

Differential Diagnoses

Laboratory Studies

Imaging Studies

Procedures

Histologic Findings

Staging

Treatment Paradigm

The symptoms of acute telogen effluvium are self-limiting. There is no need for additional therapy if the history identifies the causal event and it has already received sufficient care. Hair growth will resume once the underlying hormonal, nutritional, and metabolic condition has been treated. If a drug is to blame for the loss, stopping the drug will cause the hair to grow again.

There is no place for hair transplantation in the management of telogen effluvium. Although topical minoxidil hasn’t been shown to help hair with telogen effluvium recover, it has potential advantages. The usage of minoxidil is an option for patients who want to be actively involved in their care.

by Stage

by Modality

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Surgical Interventions

Hormone Therapy

Immunotherapy

Hyperthermia

Photodynamic Therapy

Stem Cell Transplant

Targeted Therapy

Palliative Care

Medication

Media Gallary

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430848/

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Telogen Effluvium

Updated : August 22, 2023




A kind of non-scarring alopecia known as telogen effluvium is characterised by broad, frequently abrupt hair loss. There is also a different chronic type with a sneakier beginning. Telogen effluvium is the excessive loss of dormant or telogen hairline as a result of medicine, hormone imbalances, or metabolic stress.

Due to the structure of the root, telogen hair is often referred to as club hairs. Approximately 85% of the hair on the scalp of an average, healthy individual is anagen, while 15% is telogen. Telogen hair are dormant hair while anagen hair are hair that are growing at a rate. There might also be a little hair in catagen.

An average hair follicle produces anagen hairs for about 4 years before going dormant for approximately 4 months. Under the telogen hair that is dormant, a new anagen hair starts to grow & push it out. 70 percent of anagen hair can precipitated into the telogen period, which results in loss of hair, if the body is under any form of stress.

Any time of life, any sexuality, and anyone from any race can develop telogen effluvium. Telogen effluvium is thought to be relatively frequent, while its actual prevalence is unknown. A significant portion of adults eventually go through a telogen effluvium episode.

Telogen effluvium can affect both sexes, however due to hormonal changes after childbirth, women are more likely to have this illness. Women are also more prone to seek medical assistance since they are more bothered by hair loss than males are.

When physiological stress causes a significant quantity of hairs in the anagen phase of the hair cycle to suddenly move to telogen/resting phase, this condition is known as telogen effluvium. The telogen hair stop growing for one to six months (on average three months), yet the patient is unaware of this growth halt.

The hairs that had been suspended in the telogen (resting phase) are extruded from the follicles whenever the hairs enter the anagen (growth period), & hair loss is evident.

Telogen effluvium is a continuous activity that can be brought on by medicine, hormone levels, or metabolic disturbances. Acute febrile infections, major surgeries, serious infections, postpartum hormone imbalances, severe trauma, hypothyroidism, notably a drop in oestrogen, stopping estrogen-containing medications, poor protein intake, crash dieting, heavy metal intake, & iron deficit are common triggers.

Retinoids (particularly excessive vitamin A), Beta-blockers, anticoagulants, carbamazepine, propylthiouracil & vaccinations are the most often associated drugs with telogen effluvium.

Morbidity is typically restricted to minor alterations in appearance. There have been no reports of deaths.

  • Telogen effluvium has a significant effect on persons who have the condition.
  • Acute telogen effluvium has a fair recovery outlook for hair density.
  • Even if the hair loss persists in persistent telogen effluvium, a positive cosmetic result is still anticipated.

The symptoms of acute telogen effluvium are self-limiting. There is no need for additional therapy if the history identifies the causal event and it has already received sufficient care. Hair growth will resume once the underlying hormonal, nutritional, and metabolic condition has been treated. If a drug is to blame for the loss, stopping the drug will cause the hair to grow again.

There is no place for hair transplantation in the management of telogen effluvium. Although topical minoxidil hasn’t been shown to help hair with telogen effluvium recover, it has potential advantages. The usage of minoxidil is an option for patients who want to be actively involved in their care.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430848/

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