fbpx

Tinea Barbae

Updated : February 27, 2024





Background

Tinea barbae is a superficial skin, hair follicle and hair infection caused by dermatophytes. Although dermatophyte infections are one of the most common skin infections, Tinea barbae is uncommon.

Inadequate awareness of the disease within the medical community frequently results in misdiagnosis and mismanagement. To avoid the related morbidity and healthcare expenses, this illness must be promptly recognised and treated.

A clinical sign of tinea barbae, also known as tinea sycosis, is inflammation of the hair follicles. Earlier, this illness was often believed to be transmitted by dirty razors. Therefore, it was known as beard ringworm or barber’s itch.

Epidemiology

Despite the prevalence of superficial fungal infection, Tinea Barbae is rather uncommon. Gruby originally reported Tinea barbae in 1842, and only a little more than 150 instances were discussed until 1990. Since 1990, the majority of data published on tinea barbae are either tiny case studies or isolates reports.

Due to the rarity of the condition, it is difficult to predict its mortality rate and its actual incidence rate. The spread of dermatophytes is a global phenomenon, as are cases of this condition which were recorded in the scientific literature.

This infection of the hair and hair follicles in the area of the beard and moustache, is only observed in men and boys. In an extremely rare occurrence, a case has been described in a hirsute woman in a longitudinal study performed in Portugal.

Anatomy

Pathophysiology

Deep and superficial infections of keratinized tissues are caused by dermatophytes, which are keratinophilic fungi. The outer layer of the skin’s dryness, the shedding of the outer layers of dead skin, and the secretion of medium chain-fatty acids and peptides hinders the colonisation of microbes.

Factors which increase the probability of dermatophyte infections are:

  • Immune Status
  • Steroid use
  • Trauma to the skin
  • Occupational exposure to dermatophytes
  • Diabetes mellitus

Together, Dermatophytes and the host’s inflammatory response to the pathogen are characteristic of the disease. The inflammatory process is influenced by both host-specific and fungal-specific variables.

Adaptation to the unique host, the release of enzymes, the synthesis of toxins and other inflammatory factors , as well as the release of immunomodulatory substances are the fungal-specific factors responsible for disease.

The entrance site, non-specific defence mechanisms, and immunological response are host-specific elements which contribute to the inflammatory process. The keratinized tissue is inoculated with arthroconidium (spores) to initiate the infection process.

As soon as the fungal spores are inoculated, their carbohydrate microfibrils anchor to the keratinocytes. Once established, the spores form hyphae that expand centrifugally into the stratum corneum’s deeper layers.

Invading fungal hyphae release proteases, keratinises, elastases as well as other pathogenic agents into the stratum corneum. These enzymes aid in the digestion and usage of keratin and some other proteins required for dermatophyte survival and growth.

In order to enter hair shafts, dermatophytes grow a specialised structure known as the penetrating organ. Keratinases stimulate keratinocytes to produce inflammatory mediators such as interleukins and cytokines.

Depending on the individual pathogen, the interleukins and cytokines generated by keratinocytes will attract both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses.

Etiology

Dermatophyte infections are transmitted to individuals through physical contact with infected animals, humans, or soil. The literature indicates that only anthrophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes produce tinea barbae.

The three organisms which are the most commonly reported are:

  • Trichophyton rubrum
  • Trichophytonmentagrophytes
  • Trichophyton verrucosum

Other reported organisms are Trichophyton schoenleinii, Epidermophyton floccosum, Mycrosporum gypseum, Microsporum nanum, Trichophyton megninii, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton ernacei.

Prior to the year 2000, zoophilic dermatophytes from diseased farm animals and domestic animals, mainly sheep, dairy cows, pigs, cats, dogs and horses, caused the majority of tinea barbae cases described in the medical literature.

Infections caused by anthropophilic T. rubrum have been commonly documented in recent years, as evidenced by many case reports and published case studies from Mexico and Portugal.

Genetics

Prognostic Factors

As only a few hundred cases of this condition have been reported, the data is limited. But, the overall prognosis of all reported cases has been excellent. All patients have responded positively to oral antifungals, leading to complete recoveries.

Clinical History

Physical Examination

Age group

Associated comorbidity

Associated activity

Acuity of presentation

Differential Diagnoses

Laboratory Studies

Imaging Studies

Procedures

Histologic Findings

Staging

Treatment Paradigm

by Stage

by Modality

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Surgical Interventions

Hormone Therapy

Immunotherapy

Hyperthermia

Photodynamic Therapy

Stem Cell Transplant

Targeted Therapy

Palliative Care

Medication

Media Gallary

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563204/

Tinea Barbae

Updated : February 27, 2024




Tinea barbae is a superficial skin, hair follicle and hair infection caused by dermatophytes. Although dermatophyte infections are one of the most common skin infections, Tinea barbae is uncommon.

Inadequate awareness of the disease within the medical community frequently results in misdiagnosis and mismanagement. To avoid the related morbidity and healthcare expenses, this illness must be promptly recognised and treated.

A clinical sign of tinea barbae, also known as tinea sycosis, is inflammation of the hair follicles. Earlier, this illness was often believed to be transmitted by dirty razors. Therefore, it was known as beard ringworm or barber’s itch.

Despite the prevalence of superficial fungal infection, Tinea Barbae is rather uncommon. Gruby originally reported Tinea barbae in 1842, and only a little more than 150 instances were discussed until 1990. Since 1990, the majority of data published on tinea barbae are either tiny case studies or isolates reports.

Due to the rarity of the condition, it is difficult to predict its mortality rate and its actual incidence rate. The spread of dermatophytes is a global phenomenon, as are cases of this condition which were recorded in the scientific literature.

This infection of the hair and hair follicles in the area of the beard and moustache, is only observed in men and boys. In an extremely rare occurrence, a case has been described in a hirsute woman in a longitudinal study performed in Portugal.

Deep and superficial infections of keratinized tissues are caused by dermatophytes, which are keratinophilic fungi. The outer layer of the skin’s dryness, the shedding of the outer layers of dead skin, and the secretion of medium chain-fatty acids and peptides hinders the colonisation of microbes.

Factors which increase the probability of dermatophyte infections are:

  • Immune Status
  • Steroid use
  • Trauma to the skin
  • Occupational exposure to dermatophytes
  • Diabetes mellitus

Together, Dermatophytes and the host’s inflammatory response to the pathogen are characteristic of the disease. The inflammatory process is influenced by both host-specific and fungal-specific variables.

Adaptation to the unique host, the release of enzymes, the synthesis of toxins and other inflammatory factors , as well as the release of immunomodulatory substances are the fungal-specific factors responsible for disease.

The entrance site, non-specific defence mechanisms, and immunological response are host-specific elements which contribute to the inflammatory process. The keratinized tissue is inoculated with arthroconidium (spores) to initiate the infection process.

As soon as the fungal spores are inoculated, their carbohydrate microfibrils anchor to the keratinocytes. Once established, the spores form hyphae that expand centrifugally into the stratum corneum’s deeper layers.

Invading fungal hyphae release proteases, keratinises, elastases as well as other pathogenic agents into the stratum corneum. These enzymes aid in the digestion and usage of keratin and some other proteins required for dermatophyte survival and growth.

In order to enter hair shafts, dermatophytes grow a specialised structure known as the penetrating organ. Keratinases stimulate keratinocytes to produce inflammatory mediators such as interleukins and cytokines.

Depending on the individual pathogen, the interleukins and cytokines generated by keratinocytes will attract both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses.

Dermatophyte infections are transmitted to individuals through physical contact with infected animals, humans, or soil. The literature indicates that only anthrophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes produce tinea barbae.

The three organisms which are the most commonly reported are:

  • Trichophyton rubrum
  • Trichophytonmentagrophytes
  • Trichophyton verrucosum

Other reported organisms are Trichophyton schoenleinii, Epidermophyton floccosum, Mycrosporum gypseum, Microsporum nanum, Trichophyton megninii, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton ernacei.

Prior to the year 2000, zoophilic dermatophytes from diseased farm animals and domestic animals, mainly sheep, dairy cows, pigs, cats, dogs and horses, caused the majority of tinea barbae cases described in the medical literature.

Infections caused by anthropophilic T. rubrum have been commonly documented in recent years, as evidenced by many case reports and published case studies from Mexico and Portugal.

As only a few hundred cases of this condition have been reported, the data is limited. But, the overall prognosis of all reported cases has been excellent. All patients have responded positively to oral antifungals, leading to complete recoveries.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563204/

Free CME credits

Both our subscription plans include Free CME/CPD AMA PRA Category 1 credits.

Digital Certificate PDF

On course completion, you will receive a full-sized presentation quality digital certificate.

medtigo Simulation

A dynamic medical simulation platform designed to train healthcare professionals and students to effectively run code situations through an immersive hands-on experience in a live, interactive 3D environment.