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Tinea Capitis

Updated : February 28, 2024





Background

A fungus infestation of the skull hairs is known as tinea capitis, also known as scalp ringworm. Infection with herpes tonsurans and ringworm are other names for tinea capitis. The dermatophyte species Trichophyton and Microsporum are the main culprits.

The fungus has the ability to pierce the external root sheath of the hair follicle and may eventually infect the hair strands. Tinea capitis can be classified clinically as inflammatory or non-inflammatory.

Scarring alopecia typically won’t complicate the non-inflammatory variety. The inflammatory form can cause scarring alopecia as well as painful lumps with drainage. Scalp ringworm can affect people of any age but is most common in children around 3 to 14 years. It might also include the eyebrows and eyelashes.

Epidemiology

A common skin condition is scalp ringworm. Nearly everywhere in the world, tinea capitis is common. In hotter, humid regions like Central America, Africa, and Southeast Asia, it is most prevalent.

Relying on the dermatophytes that are the cause, sexual preference can change. For instance, Trichophyton infestations in children will have an equal impact on both sexes.

Boys are more susceptible to Microsporum canis than girls. Children are more susceptible to tinea capitis than adults.

Anatomy

Pathophysiology

Humans frequently contract infections from dermatophytes. Once it has been acquired, the fungus spreads into the keratin by growing downward in the stratum corneum.

The diseased hair finally breaks after becoming brittle. Immunosuppression may affect the strength and development of the hair shaft, making colonization easier.

These other illnesses are related to:

  • Diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2
  • Continuous steroid usage
  • Various types of cancers
  • Anti-immunosuppressive drugs
  • Anaemia

It is important to note that HIV risk is not rising as a result of Malassezia’s competitive colonization.

  • One of three main ways will often result in an infection of the hair; One instance of this type is the endothrix, where fungi attack the hair strands: Trichophyton tonsurans
  • Ectothrix: a condition in which the fungus attacks the external sheath of the root: Microsporum Canis
  • Favus: a condition marked by an inflammatory response, scutula or crusting, and loss of hair. Trichophyton schoenleinii

Etiology

The dermatophyte organisms that cause scalp ringworm are capable of infecting keratinized tissues and keratin, such as the hairs. Numerous genera, including Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum are considered to be dermatophytes.

Trichophyton Sudanese, Trichophyton verrucous, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton tonsurans are a few examples of typical microorganisms.

Direct interaction with organisms from:

  • Anthrophillic microorganisms (Humans)
  • Zoophilic microorganisms (Animals)
  • Geophilic microorganisms (Soil)
  • Indirectly using items like hats and hairbrushes.

Genetics

Prognostic Factors

Treatment for scalp ringworm has an excellent prognosis. Those who do not receive treatment, however, run the danger of developing an abscess, commonly described as either a kerion.

For so many months, the fungi might release spores, which causes spread. Medication noncompliance is a frequent factor in therapeutic failure. When tinea capitis is diagnosed and treated promptly, the prognosis is typically favorable.

Clinical History

Physical Examination

Age group

Associated comorbidity

Associated activity

Acuity of presentation

Differential Diagnoses

Laboratory Studies

Imaging Studies

Procedures

Histologic Findings

Staging

Treatment Paradigm

by Stage

by Modality

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Surgical Interventions

Hormone Therapy

Immunotherapy

Hyperthermia

Photodynamic Therapy

Stem Cell Transplant

Targeted Therapy

Palliative Care

Medication

 
 

terbinafine 

For more than 4 years or less than 25 kg: 125 mg/day orally for 6 weeks

For more than 4 years or 25-35 kg: 187.5 mg/day orally for 6 weeks

For more than 4 years or more than 35 kg: 250 mg/day orally for 6 weeks



 

Media Gallary

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK536909/

Tinea Capitis

Updated : February 28, 2024




A fungus infestation of the skull hairs is known as tinea capitis, also known as scalp ringworm. Infection with herpes tonsurans and ringworm are other names for tinea capitis. The dermatophyte species Trichophyton and Microsporum are the main culprits.

The fungus has the ability to pierce the external root sheath of the hair follicle and may eventually infect the hair strands. Tinea capitis can be classified clinically as inflammatory or non-inflammatory.

Scarring alopecia typically won’t complicate the non-inflammatory variety. The inflammatory form can cause scarring alopecia as well as painful lumps with drainage. Scalp ringworm can affect people of any age but is most common in children around 3 to 14 years. It might also include the eyebrows and eyelashes.

A common skin condition is scalp ringworm. Nearly everywhere in the world, tinea capitis is common. In hotter, humid regions like Central America, Africa, and Southeast Asia, it is most prevalent.

Relying on the dermatophytes that are the cause, sexual preference can change. For instance, Trichophyton infestations in children will have an equal impact on both sexes.

Boys are more susceptible to Microsporum canis than girls. Children are more susceptible to tinea capitis than adults.

Humans frequently contract infections from dermatophytes. Once it has been acquired, the fungus spreads into the keratin by growing downward in the stratum corneum.

The diseased hair finally breaks after becoming brittle. Immunosuppression may affect the strength and development of the hair shaft, making colonization easier.

These other illnesses are related to:

  • Diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2
  • Continuous steroid usage
  • Various types of cancers
  • Anti-immunosuppressive drugs
  • Anaemia

It is important to note that HIV risk is not rising as a result of Malassezia’s competitive colonization.

  • One of three main ways will often result in an infection of the hair; One instance of this type is the endothrix, where fungi attack the hair strands: Trichophyton tonsurans
  • Ectothrix: a condition in which the fungus attacks the external sheath of the root: Microsporum Canis
  • Favus: a condition marked by an inflammatory response, scutula or crusting, and loss of hair. Trichophyton schoenleinii

The dermatophyte organisms that cause scalp ringworm are capable of infecting keratinized tissues and keratin, such as the hairs. Numerous genera, including Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum are considered to be dermatophytes.

Trichophyton Sudanese, Trichophyton verrucous, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton tonsurans are a few examples of typical microorganisms.

Direct interaction with organisms from:

  • Anthrophillic microorganisms (Humans)
  • Zoophilic microorganisms (Animals)
  • Geophilic microorganisms (Soil)
  • Indirectly using items like hats and hairbrushes.

Treatment for scalp ringworm has an excellent prognosis. Those who do not receive treatment, however, run the danger of developing an abscess, commonly described as either a kerion.

For so many months, the fungi might release spores, which causes spread. Medication noncompliance is a frequent factor in therapeutic failure. When tinea capitis is diagnosed and treated promptly, the prognosis is typically favorable.

terbinafine 

For more than 4 years or less than 25 kg: 125 mg/day orally for 6 weeks

For more than 4 years or 25-35 kg: 187.5 mg/day orally for 6 weeks

For more than 4 years or more than 35 kg: 250 mg/day orally for 6 weeks



https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK536909/

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