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Zika Virus

Updated : March 12, 2024





Background

The single-stranded Ribonucleic acid Zika virus is a member of the Flavivirus family and genus, and it may be divided into two phylogenetic kinds: African and Asian.

The numbers of individuals who contract Zika only have mild and temporary symptoms. Zika infection is often a mild, self-limiting condition. Infection with the zika virus is now considered a disease.

Epidemiology

In 1947, while researching the yellow fever infection, the zika was found for the first time in Uganda. Infection of humans was first reported in 1954 across Nigeria. Studies conducted afterward revealed that it was widely distributed throughout Asia and Africa. Zika virus was not discovered in America till 2014.

There has been no evidence of significant Zika virus epidemics prior to 2007. Following chikungunya infections and potential dengue, an event was discovered in 2007 in Central Africa. Additionally, Micronesia saw an outbreak that year (western Pacific Ocean).

There were outbreaks in French Polynesia in 2013 as well as 2014, and there were more outbreaks across other Islands in the pacific in 2015 and 2016 as well, such as New Caledonia, the Cook Islands, American Samoa, Easter Island, and Samoa. In late 2014 as well as early 2015, there were reports of Zika infection in Brazil.

After that, it quickly spread throughout Central and South America. The week before July 24th, 2016, saw the first instance of locally carried Zika in the continental U.s.

At the time of writing (April 19, 2017), 223 instances of Zika virus from suspected native mosquito-borne spreading have now been detected (mainly in Florida), and seventy-six instances (twenty-eight congenital, two other, and forty-six sexual) have now been recorded in the U.s.

Anatomy

Pathophysiology

The Aedes mosquito and numerous other Aedes varieties are the carriers of the Zika. The infection can potentially spread through sexual contact in addition to mosquitos.

Etiology

Most Zika virus-related illnesses are arboviral in nature and are spread through the biting of female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

Infections can also spread transplacentally (mother-child cross-transmission) through blood donation, organ transplants, and individual contact (such as sexual interaction).

The Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, yellow fever infection, and dengue virus are only a few of the arboviral diseases that the zika virus is connected to.

Genetics

Prognostic Factors

The majority of Zika virus infections are minor and self-resolving. Unfortunately, significant neurological conditions like Guillain-Barré disease have been documented. Furthermore, there is a major concern that, if contracted during pregnancy, the virus could result in congenital brain and ocular deformities.

Clinical History

Physical Examination

Age group

Associated comorbidity

Associated activity

Acuity of presentation

Differential Diagnoses

Laboratory Studies

Imaging Studies

Procedures

Histologic Findings

Staging

Treatment Paradigm

by Stage

by Modality

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Surgical Interventions

Hormone Therapy

Immunotherapy

Hyperthermia

Photodynamic Therapy

Stem Cell Transplant

Targeted Therapy

Palliative Care

Medication

Media Gallary

References

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430981/

Zika Virus

Updated : March 12, 2024




The single-stranded Ribonucleic acid Zika virus is a member of the Flavivirus family and genus, and it may be divided into two phylogenetic kinds: African and Asian.

The numbers of individuals who contract Zika only have mild and temporary symptoms. Zika infection is often a mild, self-limiting condition. Infection with the zika virus is now considered a disease.

In 1947, while researching the yellow fever infection, the zika was found for the first time in Uganda. Infection of humans was first reported in 1954 across Nigeria. Studies conducted afterward revealed that it was widely distributed throughout Asia and Africa. Zika virus was not discovered in America till 2014.

There has been no evidence of significant Zika virus epidemics prior to 2007. Following chikungunya infections and potential dengue, an event was discovered in 2007 in Central Africa. Additionally, Micronesia saw an outbreak that year (western Pacific Ocean).

There were outbreaks in French Polynesia in 2013 as well as 2014, and there were more outbreaks across other Islands in the pacific in 2015 and 2016 as well, such as New Caledonia, the Cook Islands, American Samoa, Easter Island, and Samoa. In late 2014 as well as early 2015, there were reports of Zika infection in Brazil.

After that, it quickly spread throughout Central and South America. The week before July 24th, 2016, saw the first instance of locally carried Zika in the continental U.s.

At the time of writing (April 19, 2017), 223 instances of Zika virus from suspected native mosquito-borne spreading have now been detected (mainly in Florida), and seventy-six instances (twenty-eight congenital, two other, and forty-six sexual) have now been recorded in the U.s.

The Aedes mosquito and numerous other Aedes varieties are the carriers of the Zika. The infection can potentially spread through sexual contact in addition to mosquitos.

Most Zika virus-related illnesses are arboviral in nature and are spread through the biting of female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

Infections can also spread transplacentally (mother-child cross-transmission) through blood donation, organ transplants, and individual contact (such as sexual interaction).

The Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, yellow fever infection, and dengue virus are only a few of the arboviral diseases that the zika virus is connected to.

The majority of Zika virus infections are minor and self-resolving. Unfortunately, significant neurological conditions like Guillain-Barré disease have been documented. Furthermore, there is a major concern that, if contracted during pregnancy, the virus could result in congenital brain and ocular deformities.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430981/