Anti-inflammatory Effects: budesonide is a synthetic glucocorticoid, like natural cortisol produced by the body. When administered intranasally, budesonide enters the nasal mucosal cells and binds to glucocorticoid receptors.
Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Genes: Once bound to these receptors, budesonide modulates gene transcription, inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. This leads to decreased production and release of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines (e.g., interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), chemokines, and other inflammatory molecules.
Reduction of Inflammation: By suppressing the production of inflammatory mediators, budesonide intranasal reduces the local inflammation in the nasal passages. This action helps alleviate nasal congestion, itching, sneezing, and a runny nose associated with allergic rhinitis.
Immunosuppressive Effects: budesonide also has immunosuppressive properties, which can dampen the immune response in the nasal mucosa. This helps to reduce the exaggerated immune response seen in allergic rhinitis, where the immune system overreacts to harmless allergens.