gentamicin belongs to the class of aminoglycosides. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter spp. gentamicin binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit of bacteria, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to cell death. It is primarily bactericidal, meaning that it kills bacteria rather than merely inhibiting their growth.
gentamicin is also active against some gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. However, its use in these infections is limited due to the emergence of resistant strains. gentamicin is not effective against anaerobic bacteria, viruses, or fungi.