palonosetron is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It is primarily used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy or surgery.
The action of palonosetron involves binding to and blocking serotonin receptors (specifically, the 5-HT3 receptors) in the brain and gastrointestinal tract. This prevents the transmission of signals that trigger the sensation of nausea and vomiting, thus helping to reduce these symptoms.
palonosetron has a long half-life, meaning that it remains active in the body for an extended period. This makes it effective at preventing delayed nausea and vomiting that can occur after chemotherapy.
In terms of spectrum, palonosetron is effective in preventing both acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy, as well as preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. It is generally well-tolerated and has a low risk of adverse effects, which makes it a preferred option for preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.