sitagliptin is a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. It works by inhibiting the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), which in turn increases the levels of incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). These hormones help to regulate blood sugar levels by stimulating the release of insulin and reducing the production of glucose by the liver.
The spectrum of sitagliptin’s actions includes:
Decreasing glucose production by the liver: sitagliptin reduces the amount of glucose produced by the liver by inhibiting the activity of the enzyme responsible for producing glucose.
Increasing insulin secretion: By increasing the levels of incretin hormones, sitagliptin stimulates the pancreas to release more insulin in response to food intake.
Decreasing glucagon secretion: sitagliptin reduces the production of glucagon, a hormone that increases blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to produce glucose.
Slowing down gastric emptying: sitagliptin slows down the rate at which food moves from the stomach to the small intestine, which helps to reduce the postprandial (after-meal) rise in blood sugar levels.