fbpx

theophylline

Brand Name :

Theochron, aminophylline, Theo 24, Elixophyllin, Uniphyl

Synonyms :

theophylline

Class :

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors, Nonselective; Xanthine Derivatives





No data available for drug.

Actions and spectrum: 

  • Bronchodilation: theophylline works by relaxing the smooth muscles in the airways, particularly in the bronchial tubes. This helps to widen the airways and improve airflow, making it easier for individuals with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and respiratory conditions to breathe. 
  • Anti-inflammatory effects: theophylline has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, which can help reduce airway inflammation and improve symptoms in conditions such as asthma. 
  • Central nervous system stimulation: theophylline acts as a central nervous system stimulant, which can increase alertness and decrease fatigue. 
  • Cardiovascular effects: theophylline has mild positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, meaning it can increase the force and rate of heart contractions. However, these effects are less pronounced compared to other medications used specifically for cardiovascular conditions. 

The spectrum of theophylline refers to the wide range of conditions. It is used to treat asthma, chronic bronchitis, and COPD. However, its use is becoming less common due to the availability of newer and more targeted medications with fewer side effects. theophylline may also be used in certain cases of apnea of prematurity, where it helps stimulate breathing in premature infants. 

DRUG INTERACTION

theophylline

&

  • clomiphene
  • patisiran
  • imetelstat
  • phenylephrine ophthalmic
  • myoinositol
  • vasicinone
  • soda lime
  • fisetin
  • Reynoutria Japonica
  • Coco Monoethanolamide
  • Betadex
  • lithopone
  • cyperus rotundus
  • papaya juice
  • 1-naphthaleneacetic acid
  • Nordazepam
  • Glechoma hederacea
  • Alternanthera sessilis
  • nicofetamide
  • napthol asol
  • cocamidopropyl betaine
  • musa x paradisiaca
  • dicyclomine/mefenamic acid
  • Sorghum
  • Manganese citrate
  • tovorafenib
  • mefenamic acid/paracetamol
  • eschscholzia californica
  • canna indica root
  • tranexamic acid/mefenamic acid
  • dexverapamil
  • sitogluside
  • secalciferol
  • cefatrizine
  • Sedum Acre
  • Flurogestone
  • Fluocortin
  • Bifendate
  • piprozolin
  • aminacrine undecylate
  • ethylenediamine mandelate
  • pelubiprofen
  • hesperetin
  • butethamine
  • epitiostanol
  • androstenediol
  • Nitroxoline
  • Iocarmic acid
  • Capobenic acid
  • dordaviprone (investigational drug)
  • Vitexin
  • Friluglanstat (investigational drug)
  • scorias spongiosa
  • Luseogliflozin
  • indoxacarb
  • prademagene zamikeracel
  • fidanacogene elaparvovec-dzkt
  • albifylline
  • idanpramine
  • araneus diadematus
  • Sulfamazone
  • Lycosa tarantula
  • malotilate
  • Ethacizine
  • Namilumab
  • Latrunculin B
  • stachyose
  • platinic oxide
  • iopronic acid
  • calcium chloride / potassium chloride/lactic acid/ sodium chloride/sodium hydroxide/sodium lactate solution
  • citric acid/ sodium bicarbonate/ sodium carbonate anhydrous
  • vadadustat
  • permethrin medical grade cis/trans isomers 25/75
  • lutetium, isotope of mass 177
  • human normal immunoglobulin
  • sacrosidase
  • apadamtase alfa, recombinant
  • acetyl hexapeptide-8 amide
  • pemivibart (Investigational)
  • govorestat
  • Zanidatamab
  • sotatеrcеpt
  • MV 140 vaccine
  • leuprorelin implant
  • cinchocaine hydrochloride/fluocortolone hexanoate/fluocortolone pivalate
  • Beautyberry
  • risedronate/calcium/vitamin D3
  • rhubarb extract/senna leaf/sulphur purified/wood charcoal
  • boric acid/kaolin/methyl salicylate/peppermint oil/thymol
  • docosahexaenoic acid/eicospentaenoic acid
  • aluminium hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide/simethicone
  • gentamicin/hydrocortisone
  • succinylcholine
  • sinefungin
  • letibotulinumtoxinA
  • coal tar/coconut oil/salicylic acid
  • camphor/camphor oil white/capsicum oleoresin /menthol/methyl salicylate
  • thioglycolic acid
  • acetic acid auricular
  • roluperidone
  • hydrocortisone/crotamiton topical
  • nystatin/chlorhexidine
  • aluminium chloride hexahydrate
  • ketoprofen topical
  • Chlormethine
  • podophyllotoxin
  • urea/lactic acid
  • autologous chondrocytes implant
  • afelimomab
  • gepotidacin
  • fludroxycortide
  • fentanyl transdermal
  • erythromycin/zinc acetate
  • dibotermin alfa powder
  • desferrioxamine mesilate
  • choline salicylate/magnesium salicylate
  • castor oil/peru balsam/trypsin
  • betamethasone/dexchlorpheniramine maleate
  • benzalkonium chloride solution/cetrimide
  • barzolvolimab
  • ascorbic acid / calcium laevulinate / nicotinamide / calcium pantothenate / calcium chloride / riboflavine / pyridoxine hydrochloride / thiamine hydrochloride
  • argipressin
  • arachis oil refined/chlorobutanol hemihydrate
  • arachis oil/eucalyptol/nutmeg oil/terpineol
  • ammonium chloride/diphenhydramine hydrochloride/levomenthol
  • amino acid mixture d / calcium chloride dihydrate / glucose monohydrate / glycine / magnesium chloride hexahydrate / olive oil / potassium chloride / sodium acetate trihydrate / sodium glycerophosphate pentahydrate / soya-bean oil
  • biotin/colecalciferol/copper (ii)sulfate dried/ cyanocobalamine/ dl-alpha tocopherol acetate/dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous/folic acid/iron (ii)sulfate dried/ lecithin/ magnesium sulfate dried/ nicotinamide/ pyridoxine hydrochloride/ riboflavin
  • ampicillin sodium / cloxacillin sodium
  • undecylenic acid, undecylenate salts, zincundecate
  • omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate
  • efgartigimod alfa/hyaluronidase
  • xylometazoline/ipratropium
  • cefepime and enmetazobactam
  • isotonic sodium chloride
  • bee venom allergen injection
  • fentanyl intranasal
  • alglucosidase alfa
  • triprolidine/pseudoephedrine
  • pegademase bovine
  • castor oil and peru balsam
  • camphor/eucalyptus oil/menthol
  • oxyquinoline/sodium lauryl sulfate
  • somatorelin
  • menotrophin injection
  • menadiol
  • hylan g-f 20
  • cefepime and taniborbactum
  • water avens
  • camphor/menthol
  • acoramidis
  • elafibranor
  • arrowroot
  • miconazole nitrate/hydrocortisone
  • vildagliptin/metformin
  • dobesilic acid
  • aroxybutynin and atomoxetine
  • hygromycin
  • linvoseltamab
  • nemolizumab
  • aceprometazine
  • limaprost
  • oxazolam
  • trimegestone
  • teceleukin
  • beauty berry
  • dinotefuran
  • imiprothrin
  • transfluthrin
  • thymalfasin
  • technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept
  • glepaglutide
  • marstacimab
  • pixantrone
  • Andiroba
  • arabinoxylan
  • arenaria rubra
  • etripamil
  • jequirity
  • jiaogulan
  • dusquetide
  • rolipram
  • tradipitant
  • sinfungin
  • diclofenac/omeprazole
  • brinzolamide and timolol maleate
  • wormseed
  • wormwood
  • wood sorrel
  • carmellose sodium
  • ibandronic acid
  • cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate
  • ursodeoxycholic acid
  • rhubarb extract/salicylic acid
  • butamirate citrate
  • fumitory
  • taheebo
  • uva ursi
  • vervain
  • coleus
  • coltsfoot
  • crampbark
  • plantain
  • potassium nitrate and silver nitrate
  • gelsemium
  • gentian
  • glucomannan
  • walnut
  • meadowsweet
  • midomafetamine
  • pennyroyal
  • periwinkle
  • betony
  • bitter orange
  • bladderwrack
  • bloodroot
  • emu oil
  • garcinia
  • yellow dock
  • burdock
  • dehydroepiandrosterone
  • aucubin
  • jasmone
  • resacetophenone
  • ecamsule ditriethanolamine
  • feclobuzone
  • fenoprop triethanolamine
  • verdyl acetate
  • caffeic acid
  • cyclamen aldehyde
  • dicetyldimonium chloride
  • wogonin
  • impacarzine
  • laurylpyridinium chloride
  • stepronin
  • matrine
  • sakuranin
  • cannabichromene
  • sandalore
  • sabinene
  • oxypaeoniflora
  • ethylhexyl pelargonate
  • acrylonitrile
  • allyl alcohol
  • dipalmitoylethyl hydroxyethylmonium methosulfate
  • butidrine
  • clothiapine
  • propanediol dicaprylate
  • buchu
  • undecanol
  • enilconazole
  • xymenynic acid
  • angelica
  • nizubaglustat
  • resomelagon
  • ulecaciclib
  • apple cider vinegar
  • bacopa
  • barley grass
  • dandelion
  • deer velvet
  • dolomite
  • bugleweed
  • bupleurum
  • glyceryltrinitrate
  • pociredir
  • asnuciclib
  • actalycabtagene autoleucel
  • butantan–dengue vaccine
  • travoprost/timolol
  • furosemide/potassium chloride
  • amylamine
  • jaborandi
  • patritumab deruxtecan
  • jackfruit
  • sterculia
  • ascorbigen
  • ashitaba
  • androstenetrione
  • andrachne
  • cosibelimab
  • racecadotril
  • neomycin/chlorhexidine
  • octocog alfa
  • cetrimide
  • ispaghula husk
  • polyhexanide
  • octenidine
  • polygeline
  • heparinoid
  • jewelweed
  • boldo
  • anizatrectinib
  • alpinia
  • henbane
  • cynanchum vincetoxicum root and sulfur
  • boditrectinib
  • izumerogant
  • zavondemstat
  • abuta
  • fadogia agrestis
  • fly agaric mushroom
  • meptazinol
  • methoxyflurane
  • tramadol/dexketoprofen
  • betaine/polyhexanide
  • filgotinib
  • inosine acedoben dimepranol
  • alverine citrate
  • hyoscine butylbromide
  • senna+ ispaghula
  • cabbage palm
  • cajeput oil
  • calanus oil
  • calamint
  • canada balsam
  • carnosine
  • alverine citrate/simeticone
  • dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine
  • mebeverine/ispaghula
  • calcipotriol
  • tacalcitol
  • triethyl citrate/ethyl linoleate
  • sodium dilauramidoglutamide lysine
  • fazamorexant
  • avibactam tomilopil and ceftibuten
  • drostanolone
  • tigilanol tiglate
  • isorhynchophylline
  • rhynchophylline
  • crisugabalin
  • epigallocatechin gallate
  • clomocycline
  • corynoxeine
  • isocorynoxeine
  • Culmerciclib
  • Neladenoson
  • ambrein
  • hexylcaine
  • phensuximide
  • resencatinib (investigational)
  • rolusafine
  • pumecitinib
  • arhalofenic acid
  • berdazimer sodium
  • benzquinamide
  • clidinium
  • sulfametopyrazine
  • fulzerasib (Investigational Drug)
  • rovadicitinib (Investigational Drug)
  • Upleganan (Investigational Drug)
  • menthyl ethylamido oxalate
  • quaternium-90 montmorillonite
  • unecritinib (investigational drug)
  • etohexadiol
  • guaiol
  • proximadiol
  • verdinexor
  • sofnobrutinib
  • talbutal
  • ethoxzolamide
  • propiomazine
  • enprofylline
  • phenmetrazine
  • merigolix
  • pralurbactam
  • neracorvir
  • vonifimod
  • apaziquone hydroquinone
  • darizmetinib
  • zandelisib
  • xininurad
  • ritivixibat
  • amiselimod phosphate (investigational drug)
  • emzeltrectinib (investigational drug)
  • ficonalkib
  • cinalukast
  • ulobetasol
  • candoxatril
  • nitrofural
  • acetyldigitoxin
  • bentiromide
  • dextrothyroxine
  • chlorotrianisene
  • remikiren
  • pipobroman
  • vidarabine
  • immune globulin intravenous, human-stwk
  • spermine
  • serine
  • N-acetyl glucosamine
  • valine
  • adenine
  • asparagine
  • citrulline
  • adinazolam
  • interferon alfacon-1
  • interferon alfa-n1
  • felypressin
  • birch triterpenes
  • pyridoxal phosphate
  • technetium Tc-99m arcitumomab
  • beta-alanine
  • dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid
  • urea/hydrocortisone
  • R21/Matrix-M vaccine
  • povidone-iodine (ophthalmic)
  • pheniramine
  • hydrocortisone rectal
  • chloroxylenol/pramoxine/zinc acetate
  • chloroxylenol/pramoxine
  • dextrose/sucrose/vitamin C/zinc sulphate
  • furazolidone/metronidazole/dicyclomine
  • ergocalciferol (vitamin D2)
  • benoxaprofen (discontinued)
  • teicoplanin
  • carbomer
  • chromic chloride / iron (ii) chloride tetrahydrate / potassium iodide / manganese chloride / sodium fluoride / sodium selenite pentahydrate / sodium molybdate dihydrate / zinc chloride/ cupric chloride
  • bufylline
  • lidocaine/prilocaine
  • opium tincture, squill oxymel
  • dibrompropamidine
  • metronidazole/tetracycline/bismuth subsalicylate
  • agnus- castus
  • velaglucerase alfa
  • alendronic acid / colecalciferol
  • bimatoprost / timolol
  • efbemalenograstim alfa
  • dried ferrous sulfate/folic acid
  • dried ferrous sulfate / sodium ascorbate
  • nirogacestat
  • soya-bean oil, medium-chain triglycerides
  • demeclocycline hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide
  • fusidic acid / hydrocortisone acetate
  • macrogol
  • storax, benzoin
  • nomegestrol acetate/estradiol
  • flumetasone pivalate/ clioquinol
  • berdazimer topical (Pending FDA Approval)
  • buflomedil
  • butobarbital
  • andexanet alfa
  • methoxypolyethylene glycol-epoetin beta
  • viscum abietis
  • pramoxine vaginal
  • bupivacaine implant
  • cromolyn sodium, inhaled
  • pneumococcal vaccine 20-valent
  • bimatoprost ophthalmic implant
  • tick-borne encephalitis vaccine
  • chloroprocaine ophthalmic
  • travoprost intraocular implant (Pending FDA approval)
  • typhoid polysaccharide vaccine
  • sodium phosphate rectal
  • human papillomavirus vaccine, nonavalent
  • peanut immunotherapy epicutaneous (FDA approval pending)
  • cromolyn sodium, intranasal
  • red blood cells(Blood component)
  • oral mucoadhesive
  • clindamycin vaginal
  • whole blood (Blood Component)
  • fibrinogen/thrombin
  • levothyroxine/liothyronine
  • ipratropium intranasal
  • metronidazole vaginal
  • cyamemazine
  • brinase
  • reviparin
  • ulinastatin
  • saruplase
  • acepromazine
  • emylcamate
  • methionine
  • amino acids and electrolytes in dextrose with calcium
  • slippery elm
  • camostat
  • hemoglobin crosfumaril
  • moperone
  • chlormidazole
  • brilaroxazine
  • palopegteriparatide
  • diazepam buccal
  • benegrastim (pending for FDA approval)
  • COVID-19 vaccine, adjuvanted-Novavax
  • vestronidase alfa-vjbk
  • tebipenem (Pending FDA Approval)
  • tislelizumab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • zolbetuximab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • zoliflodacin (pending FDA approval)
  • zibotentan and dapagliflozin
  • fluorine F18 DCFPyL
  • debamestrocel
  • givinostat
  • amubarvimab and romlusevimab(Pending FDA Approval)
  • sabizabulin(Pending FDA approval)
  • fexapotide(Phase 3 Clinical trial)
  • diatrizoic acid
  • drotaverine
  • diethyl phthalate
  • enclomiphene
  • epalrestat
  • ethamsylate
  • flupirtine
  • imidurea
  • sodium glycolate
  • feracrylum
  • ethacridine
  • furazolidone/metronidazole
  • ozagrel hydrochloride
  • leptazol
  • l-glutamic acid /vitamin B complex
  • etizolam
  • etizolam/propranolol
  • ethoheptazine citrate
  • etophylline and theophylline
  • etophylline
  • finger millet
  • drotaverine/mefenamic acid
  • dichloroxylenol
  • pneumococcal 7-valent vaccine
  • diclofenac and metaxalone
  • dipivefrin ophthalmic
  • enbucrilate
  • potassium citrate and citric acid
  • potassium gluconate
  • aclarubicin
  • alfuzosin/dutasteride
  • adrenochrome monosemicarbazone
  • selenium sulfide topical
  • sertaconazole
  • amorolfine cream
  • amsacrine
  • amylmetacresol
  • sulfonated phenolics in aqueous solution
  • technetium Tc-99m sulfur colloid
  • raltitrexed
  • romiplostim
  • acediasulfone
  • azulene
  • acebrophylline
  • clonazepam/escitalopram oxalate
  • allylestrenol
  • andrographolide
  • artemotil
  • technetium Tc-99m sestamibi
  • rubidium Rb-82
  • somapacitan
  • sodium sulfate, magnesium sulfate and potassium sulfate
  • almitrine
  • gramicidin
  • nikethamide
  • technetium Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate
  • betiatide
  • prilocaine/epinephrine
  • amlexanox
  • acetaminophen/salicylamide/phenyltoloxamine
  • neomycin topical
  • zilucoplan
  • antazoline and xylometazoline
  • toripalimab
  • iron isomaltoside
  • meningococcal A C Y and W polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine
  • meningococcal A C Y and W-135 diphtheria conjugate vaccine
  • tetradecyl Sulfuric Acid
  • benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin phosphate, adapalene
  • ethylephedrine
  • actarit
  • pyrantel tartrate
  • tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir DF
  • melitracen
  • amitriptylinoxide(Phase 4 Clinical Trials)
  • threonine
  • ditiocarb zinc
  • epicriptine
  • levallorphan
  • kinetin
  • laurocapram
  • pentagastrin
  • parthenolide
  • nicoboxil
  • protionamide
  • prulifloxacin
  • proscillaridin
  • tizanidine and rofecoxib
  • tolnaftate, gentamicin, chinoform and betamethasone valerate
  • pine bark extract
  • pipenzolate methylbromide
  • bephenium hydroxynaphthoate
  • niclosamide
  • pyrvinium
  • pipenzolate methylbromide/phenobarbitone
  • piracetam/ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine
  • benzyl benzoate/disulfiram
  • benzyl benzoate
  • loperamide/simethicone
  • piroctone olamine
  • sodium fusidate
  • piroxicam topical/capsaicin/menthol/methyl salicylate
  • sodium metabisulfite
  • sodium lauryl sulfate
  • taspoglutide
  • glyclopyramide
  • tolnaftate, gentamicin, iodochlorohydroxyquinoline, chlorocresol, betamethasone valerate
  • serratiopeptidase
  • sodium antimony gluconate
  • triamterene / benzthiazide
  • tribenoside / lidocaine
  • triclocarban
  • triprolidine/dextromethorphan  
  • vitamins/minerals/omega-3 Fatty acids
  • soyabean oil
  • sucralfate/oxethazaine
  • sucralfate/tinidazole/povidone iodine
  • sodium cromoglycate
  • aloe vera/liquid paraffin/white soft paraffin
  • aloe vera/jojoba oil/vitamin E
  • allantoin/triclosan/vitamin e/zinc oxide
  • alpha-Lipoic acid/minerals/multivitamins
  • alprazolam/paracetamol
  • alprazolam/melatonin
  • azithromycin/ambroxol
  • atorvastatin/clopidogrel/aspirin
  • aceclofenac, paracetamol and serratiopeptidase
  • alfacalcidol, vitamin B-complex, minerals and antioxidants
  • alpha- lipoic acid, vitamin b complex and vitamin c
  • alpha-galactosidase and simethicone
  • alpha-galactosidase, amylase, proteases, lipase and lactase
  • amikacin and cefepime
  • aminophylline, ephedrine and phenobarbitone
  • artesunate, sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine
  • finasteride/tamsulosin
  • flavoxate/ofloxacin
  • fenofibrate/metformin
  • lignocaine, hydrocortisone topical and allantoin
  • linoleic acid and sodium lactate
  • troxerutin
  • meclizine/nicotinic acid
  • mecobalamin/ginkgo Biloba
  • spirulina
  • loperamide and furazolidone
  • ketoconazole/cetrimide
  • ketoconazole/zinc pyrithione
  • lercanidipine/atenolol
  • levocetirizine/montelukast/ambroxol
  • levarterenol
  • levocetirizine/phenylpropanolamine 
  • indapamide/amlodipine
  • itopride/methyl polysiloxane
  • mebendazole/levamisole
  • eberconazole/mometasone
  • gliclazide/metformin/pioglitazone
  • fluconazole/tinidazole
  • haemocoagulase
  • halometasone
  • hesperidin
  • imipramine/chlordiazepoxide
  • idebenone / l-arginine / zinc sulphate/selenium/proanthocyanidin
  • mecobalamin and piracetam
  • mesterolone
  • mosapride and pantoprazole
  • atorvastatin, co enzyme q10, vitamin e, zinc, and selenium
  • azithromycin and benzalkonium chloride
  • beta carotene, vitamin c, vitamin e, minerals, lutein, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexenoic acid and vit b12
  • alpha-galactosidase
  • aloe vera gel/vitamin e/lactic acid
  • aloe vera gel/jojoba/vitamin e/glycerine
  • famotidine and domperidone
  • faropenem medoxomil
  • nedosiran
  • fluconazole/ornidazole/azithromycin
  • ebastine/montelukast
  • eberconazole
  • dienogest/estradiol valerate
  • ambroxol/salbutamol
  • benzoic acid/salicylic acid/ichthammol/ triamcinolone acetonide
  • desloratadine/ambroxol
  • dexibuprofen/paracetamol
  • atorvastatin/ramipril
  • diastase
  • diastase and simethicone
  • diazepam and propranolol
  • dexrabeprazole / domperidone
  • dexrabeprazole
  • dexketoprofen /paracetamol
  • beta carotene/vitamin C/minerals
  • aloe vera gel/urea
  • aloe vera gel/glycerine
  • alpha-lipoic acid/benfotiamine/chromium/folic acid/mecobalamin / vit b6
  • alprazolam/propranolol
  • alprazolam /sertraline
  • ibuprofen/dextropropoxyphene
  • ambroxol/cetirizine/phenylephrine/ guaiphenesin/menthol
  • dextropropoxyphene/dexchlorpheniramine maleate/bromhexine
  • promegestone
  • batroxobin
  • bencyclane
  • benfluorex
  • acetylpheneturide
  • abarelix
  • abetimus
  • naftidrofuryl
  • nalorphine
  • oxiracetam
  • letosteine
  • lafutidine
  • leuprorelin
  • levodropropizine
  • glutaral
  • losartan/ramipril
  • gallopamil
  • lanatoside c
  • lauromacrogol
  • gestodene
  • aceclofenac/methyl salicylate/menthol/linseed oil/capsaicin
  • aceclofenac/paracetamol/tizanidine
  • alginic acid/magaldrate/simethicone
  • aceclofenac/paracetamol
  • aceclofenac/rabeprazole
  • alginic acid
  • pantoprazole and domperidone
  • urokinase
  • rimiterol
  • olanzapine/fluoxetine
  • normethadone/hydroxyephedrine
  • myrtol
  • moxonidine
  • propylhexedrine
  • sodium hypochlorite solution
  • sodium chloride/sodium citrate
  • Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant [Adjuvanted])
  • Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)
  • aceclofenac and serratiopeptidase
  • levosulpiride
  • niaprazine
  • tromantadine
  • trimetazidine
  • vinburnine
  • mizoribine
  • molgramostim
  • mosapride
  • eugenol
  • tolperisone
  • etamsylate
  • etynodiol
  • mizolastine
  • metenolone
  • reproterol
  • rebamipide
  • mephenoxalone
  • metandienone
  • furosemide/spironolactone
  • hydroxycarbamide
  • tenonitrozole
  • fenoverine
  • fenquizone
  • tiapride
  • tibolone
  • furazolidone
  • furosemide & amiloride
  • fosfestrol
  • fluclorolone
  • flubendazole
  • tertatolol
  • tetracosactide
  • tetryzoline
  • tolciclate
  • trapidil
  • troxipide
  • temoporfin
  • telbivudine
  • teprenone
  • hexamidine
  • mebhydrolin
  • mepartricin
  • fencamfamin
  • medazepam
  • theodrenaline
  • thiamazole
  • thiocolchicoside
  • psilocybin
  • veralipride
  • pyritinol
  • opipramol
  • oprelvekin
  • betamethasone + gentamicin
  • betamethasone + neomycin
  • betamethasone + salicylic acid
  • oxedrine
  • bopindolol
  • orgotein (investigational)
  • oxaceprol
  • ormeloxifene
  • bevantolol
  • bifemelane
  • clebopride
  • demoxytocin
  • cicletanine
  • cefsulodin
  • chlortalidon
  • sisomicin
  • somatrem
  • carbazochrome
  • caroverine
  • cathine
  • ipriflavone
  • isepamicin
  • silymarin
  • simethicone
  • sermorelin
  • diloxanide
  • dimethindene
  • diosmin/hesperidin
  • calamine
  • canrenone
  • captodiame
  • imidapril
  • cefetamet
  • cefodizime
  • cefoperazone + sulbactam
  • ivermectin + albendazole
  • serrapeptase
  • bromisoval
  • beraprost
  • pridinol
  • proglumide
  • bamipine
  • barnidipine
  • bamifylline
  • benzbromarone
  • betamethasone/fusidic acid
  • para-chlorophenol
  • pantethine
  • nomifensine
  • pemoline
  • parnaparin
  • pentolinium
  • nialamide
  • novobiocin
  • nicergoline
  • octocrylene
  • octisalate
  • oftasceine
  • oxolamine
  • oxyphencyclimine
  • penfluridol
  • pentoxyverine
  • phenoxymethylpenicillin
  • picloxydine
  • pilsicainide hydrochloride
  • piperazine
  • pirarubicin
  • policresulen
  • prifinium bromide
  • prethcamide
  • pristinamycin
  • pirenzepine
  • piribedil
  • pimethixene
  • pargyline
  • phosphatidyl choline
  • phthalylsulfathiazole
  • phytomenadione
  • pranlukast
  • pinazepam
  • oxyphenonium
  • noxytiolin
  • periciazine
  • pethidine
  • phenindamine
  • histidine
  • isoleucine
  • proline
  • lauric acid
  • lymecycline
  • hypromellose
  • abiraterone acetate and niraparib
  • ichthammol
  • levamisole
  • naftazone
  • nefopam
  • oxprenolol
  • oxybuprocaine
  • elranatamab-bcmm
  • lapyrium
  • isoaminile
  • iotrolan
  • mazindol
  • masoprocol
  • lypressin
  • meradimate
  • molsidomine
  • monobenzone
  • mequinol/gluconolactone/ lactobionic acid/ arbutin
  • medifoxamine
  • mebutamate
  • metergoline
  • methantheline
  • methdilazine
  • metocurine
  • micronomicin
  • metaraminol
  • mephenesin
  • menadione
  • medrysone
  • metixene
  • levobetaxolol
  • guaiacol glycerol ether
  • eucalyptol
  • sodium tetradecyl sulfate
  • sugammadex
  • carbetocin
  • certoparin
  • chlorcyclizine/pseudoephedrine
  • cephapirin
  • indecainide
  • iobitridol
  • iomeprol
  • chlorphenesin
  • msud analog
  • msud maxamum
  • iceland moss
  • glutethimide
  • hexachlorophene
  • haloprogin
  • deferoxamine
  • ethchlorvynol
  • dexpanthenol topical
  • etilefrine
  • deslanoside
  • carbocromen
  • diazolidinylurea
  • dibenzepin
  • etofamide
  • guanoxan
  • halazepam
  • guanadrel sulfate
  • dapiprazole
  • soapwort
  • debrisoquine
  • l-tryptophan
  • chlormerodrin
  • chlorquinaldol
  • cetrimonium
  • carbocisteine
  • chlorcyclizine/codeine
  • technetium Tc-99m tetrofosmin
  • technetium Tc-99m disofenin
  • technetium Tc-99m gluceptate
  • technetium Tc-99m labeled red blood cells
  • amylmetacresol/dextromethorphan hydrobromide
  • anileridine phosphate
  • pyrethrins
  • pyrantel pamoate
  • quinagolide
  • spiramycin
  • standard hyperkalemic cardioplegia solution
  • technetium tc-99m mertiatide
  • technetium tc-99m medronate
  • bemotrizinol / bisoctrizole
  • benfotiamine
  • bemotrizinol + titanium dioxide + zinc oxide
  • technetium Tc-99m oxidronate
  • technetium Tc-99m pentetate
  • technetium Tc-99m pyrophosphate
  • benziodarone
  • octinoxate/bisoctrizole
  • bicisate dihydrochloride
  • technetium Tc-99m bicisate
  • norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol
  • norgestimate/ethinyl estradiol
  • ximelagatran (investigational)
  • xamoterol
  • trioxsalen
  • poly-urea urethane
  • rilmenidine
  • pemirolast
  • oxitriptan
  • beclomethasone, intranasal
  • thimerosal
  • camphor gel
  • camphor
  • mumps virus vaccine, live
  • rubella virus vaccine, live
  • aluminum chloride (dental)
  • alum irrigation
  • framycetin, phenylephrine, and gramicidin
  • ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir
  • olipudase alfa
  • etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol
  • mycophenolate
  • fluoroestradiol F 18
  • donor organ cardioplegia solution
  • fluciclovine F 18
  • fusidic acid (ophthalmic)
  • fusidic acid and hydrocortisone
  • framycetin, dexamethasone, and gramicidin
  • fludeoxyglucose F-18
  • fluorouracil/salicylic acid
  • indium In-111 oxyquinoline
  • indium In-111 pentetreotide
  • indium In-111 capromab pendetide
  • lusutrombopag
  • mitomycin (ophthalmic)
  • mifepristone and misoprostol
  • minoxidil (systemic)
  • methyl aminolevulinate (topical)
  • methyl folate, methylcobalamin, and acetylcysteine
  • ciclesonide/formoterol/tiotropium
  • nedocromil (Oral Inhalation)
  • batefenterol (Investigational)
  • neostigmine and glycopyrrolate
  • nepafenac ophthalmic
  • netupitant/palonosetron
  • meperidine and promethazine
  • mepivacaine and levonordefrin
  • maltodextrin
  • medical cannabis
  • medium chain triglycerides
  • mometasone/glycopyrrolate (glycopyrronium)/ indacaterol
  • moxifloxacin ophthalmic
  • neomycin/fluocinolone
  • nadroparin
  • iodine I-125 iothalamate
  • amikacin liposome (oral inhalation)
  • bupivacaine liposome
  • natamycin
  • lopinavir and ritonavir
  • lysine
  • macitentan and tadalafil
  • mitomycin pyelocalyceal
  • moclobemide
  • mometasone and indacaterol
  • efinaconazole
  • blue-green algae
  • indocyanine green
  • follitropin beta
  • lumasiran
  • glycerin/lidocaine
  • edrophonium/atropine
  • indigo carmine
  • lutropin alfa
  • instant glucose/intravenous dextrose
  • iobenguane I-123
  • ixekizumab
  • isosulfan blue dye
  • levofloxacin ophthalmic
  • levonorgestrel oral/ferrous bisglycinate/ ethinylestradiol
  • ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel transdermal
  • hydroquinone
  • hydroxypropyl methylcellulose
  • icodextrin
  • lipid emulsion (soybean, medium-chain triglyceride, olive, and fish oils; [SMOF])
  • iodinated I 125 albumin
  • iodinated I 131 albumin
  • lipid emulsion (plant oil-based)
  • levonorgestrel intrauterine
  • levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol
  • lactic acid and sodium-PCA
  • lactated Ringer solution
  • ketotifen (systemic)
  • lanolin
  • leuprolide and norethindrone
  • levodopa and benserazide
  • gonadorelin acetate
  • hemodialysis solutions
  • nirsevimab
  • gentian violet
  • gallium ga-68 dotatate
  • fusidic acid and betamethasone
  • gallium citrate Ga-67
  • gadopentetate dimeglumine
  • gadofosveset
  • follitropin delta
  • follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa
  • follitropin alfa
  • rocatinlimab
  • grass pollens allergen extract
  • flotufolastat F18
  • fluorescein ophthalmic
  • barium
  • balanced salt solution
  • air polymer type A intrauterine device
  • clodronate
  • bentoquatam
  • clobetasone
  • alfacalcidol
  • citric acid/glucono-delta-lactone/magnesium carbonate
  • benzoin
  • desirudin
  • immune globulin IV (IGIV)
  • dequalinium
  • pseudoephedrine/desloratadine
  • clofedanol
  • cyproterone and ethinyl estradiol
  • dextranomer and hyaluronic acid or derivatives
  • diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium
  • glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and Msm
  • squill
  • gotu kola
  • blessed thistle
  • bitter melon
  • apraclonidine
  • chlophedianol/dexbrompheniramine/pseudoephedrine
  • wild jujube
  • chitosan
  • cilazapril/hydrochlorothiazide
  • dexbrompheniramine and phenylephrine
  • diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid
  • dexchlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine
  • lily of the valley
  • diflucortolone
  • corydalis
  • lemon balm
  • MSM
  • calcium polystyrene sulfonate
  • caprylidene
  • peppermint oil
  • efavirenz/lamivudine/tenofovir DF
  • emtricitabine/tenofovir DF /efavirenz
  • dutasteride/tamsulosin
  • milk thistle
  • centaury
  • horseweed
  • lycopus
  • agrimony
  • alfalfa
  • kava
  • cetrorelix
  • cetylpyridinium
  • chlophedianol and dexbrompheniramine
  • betahistine
  • choline C-11
  • boric acid vaginal suppository
  • aluminum acetate
  • aluminum chloride hexahydrate
  • 14-C urea breath test
  • absorbable collagen
  • valoctocogene roxaparvovec-rvox
  • amlodipine and celecoxib
  • aspirin and omeprazole
  • azilsartan and chlorthalidone
  • landiolol (Pending FDA approval)
  • isosorbide dinitrate/hydralazine
  • losartan/hydrochorothiazide
  • udenafil
  • dextromethorphan/quinidine
  • onasemnogene abeparvovec
  • orphenadrine/aspirin/caffeine
  • trace elements
  • sodium phenylbutyrate/ taurursodiol
  • fish oil triglycerides
  • infant formula
  • glutamine
  • chloroquine phosphate
  • afatinib
  • quinidine gluconate
  • methylergonovine
  • prothrombin complex concentrate, human
  • BCG intravesical live
  • capivasertib
  • cedazuridine
  • carbonyl iron
  • iron dextran complex
  • lovotibeglogene autotemcel (FDA Approval Pending)
  • sodium benzoate/sodium phenylacetate
  • mineral oil otic
  • zolmitriptan transdermal
  • midazolam intranasal
  • fosinopril/hydrochlorothiazide
  • caplacizumab
  • arginine
  • sodium phenylbutyrate
  • meloxicam/rizatriptan
  • manganese
  • acetaminophen/pamabrom/pyridoxine
  • varicella zoster immune globulin, human
  • amitriptyline/perphenazine
  • narsoplimab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • amlodipine/perindopril
  • imiglucerase
  • canagliflozin/metformin
  • tafamidis meglumine
  • somatrogon-ghla
  • glimepiride/rosiglitazone
  • becaplermin
  • lithium
  • loxapine inhaled
  • nicotine transdermal
  • tixagevimab and cilgavimab (Investigational)
  • muromonab CD3
  • ansuvimab
  • coal tar bath products
  • fibrin sealant
  • arimoclomol (FDA Approval Pending)
  • varenicline intranasal
  • aducanumab
  • oxycodone/naloxone
  • ritlecitinib
  • sodium polystyrene sulfonate
  • calcipotriene/betamethasone
  • calcium hydroxylapatite
  • cantharidin topical
  • doxepin cream
  • clocortolone
  • formaldehyde topical
  • sodium sulfide topical
  • collagenase
  • selegiline transdermal
  • foscarbidopa/foslevodopa (FDA approval pending)
  • saxagliptin/metformin
  • linagliptin/metformin
  • linzagolix (FDA approval pending)
  • efgartigimod/hyaluronidase SC
  • elamipretide (Pending FDA approval)
  • rozanolixizumab
  • diazoxide
  • glimepiride/pioglitazone
  • cipaglucosidase alfa
  • dihydroergotamine intranasal
  • delandistrogene moxeparvovec
  • beremagene geperpavec
  • hyaluronic acid and derivatives
  • hyaluronic acid, non-animal stabilized
  • eplontersen (FDA Approval Pending)
  • nitric oxide gas
  • sodium phenylbutyrate and taurursodiol
  • treprostinil SC
  • viltolarsen
  • albuterol/ipratropium
  • budesonide inhaled
  • budesonide rectal
  • palovarotene
  • sodium sulfate/potassium chloride/magnesium sulfate/polyethylene glycol
  • amino acids mixture
  • aminobenzoate potassium
  • elivaldogene autotemcel
  • naproxen and sumatriptan
  • sumatriptan intranasal
  • alglucerase
  • metformin/rosiglitazone
  • ertugliflozin/metformin
  • elosulfase alfa
  • calcium carbonate/magnesium hydroxide
  • starch suppository
  • abicipar pegol (FDA Approval Pending)
  • riboflavin 5′-phosphate ophthalmic
  • povidone ophthalmic
  • glycerin oropharyngeal
  • dimethicone topical
  • menthol topical, dimethicone topical
  • pramoxine topical, menthol topical and dimethicone topical
  • phosphorated carbohydrate
  • brilliant blue G ophthalmic
  • brolucizumab intravitreal
  • purified water, ophthalmic
  • hydroxyethyl cellulose ophthalmic
  • ranibizumab intravitreal implant
  • sodium chloride hypertonic, ophthalmic 
  • cetirizine ophthalmic
  • phentolamine ophthalmic
  • ganciclovir ophthalmic
  • triamcinolone intravitreal
  • ocriplasmin intravitreal
  • atoltivimab/maftivimab/odesivimab
  • pegcetacoplan intravitreal
  • triamcinolone acetonide extended-release injectable suspension
  • tobramycin/loteprednol ophthalmic
  • 2-octyl cyanoacrylate
  • vitamins A & D topical
  • diphenhydramine/allantoin topical
  • pyrethrins/piperonyl butoxide
  • lodoxamide ophthalmic
  • obeticholic acid
  • fluocinolone intravitreal implant
  • sincalide
  • linaclotide
  • nedocromil ophthalmic
  • cysteamine ophthalmic
  • avacincaptad pegol intravitreal
  • azelastine ophthalmic
  • bacitracin ophthalmic
  • propylene glycol ophthalmic
  • rimexolone ophthalmic
  • metoclopramide intranasal
  • mirikizumab
  • netarsudil ophthalmic
  • cenegermin
  • dexamethasone ophthalmic insert
  • prednisolone ophthalmic
  • phenylephrine and cocoa butter rectal
  • phenylephrine and witch hazel topical
  • phenylephrine, pramoxine, glycerin and petrolatum rectal
  • bisacodyl rectal
  • aluminum hydroxide/magnesium carbonate
  • aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide
  • hyoscyamine spray
  • methenamine/methylene blue/ hyoscyamine/ sodium phosphate monobasic/ phenyl salicylate
  • phenylephrine
  • chlorophyll
  • castor oil
  • cholic acid
  • phenol oropharyngeal
  • articaine/epinephrine
  • antithymocyte globulin equine
  • aluminum hydroxide/magnesium trisilicate
  • methenamine/hyoscyamine
  • hydrocortisone topical/pramoxine topical 
  • sodium fluoride topical
  • mesna
  • C1 esterase inhibitor recombinant
  • menthol and pectin
  • menthol oropharyngeal
  • pectin oropharyngeal
  • gepirone
  • Goldenseal
  • polyethylene glycol and electrolytes
  • polyethylene glycol/electrolytes/sodium ascorbate/ascorbic acid
  • brompheniramine/pseudoephedrine/dextromethorphan
  • brompheniramine phenylephrine
  • acetaminophen/doxylamine/phenylephrine
  • doxylamine/acetaminophen/pseudoephedrine/dextromethorphan
  • acetaminophen/doxylamine/dextromethorphan
  • acetaminophen/doxylamine/dextromethorphan/phenylephrine
  • eslicarbazepine
  • fluticasone and salmeterol
  • codeine, acetaminophen, butalbital and caffeine
  • codeine, chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine
  • iodine
  • povidone iodine
  • butalbital/aspirin/caffeine/codeine
  • polyethylene glycol 400/propylene glycol ophthalmic 
  • pegvaliase
  • amivantamab
  • iopamidol
  • codeine and pseudoephedrine
  • emtricitabine, rilpivirine, tenofovir DF
  • penicillin G aqueous
  • miconazole topical
  • miconazole vaginal
  • ciprofloxacin inhaled (Pending FDA approval)
  • ceftazidime/avibactam
  • ceftolozane/​tazobactam
  • aztreonam inhalation
  • amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate
  • miconazole oral
  • elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF
  • isavuconazonium sulfate
  • dapivirine intravaginal (FDA Approval Pending)
  • lamivudine/raltegravir
  • codeine/triprolidine/pseudoephedrine
  • cadexomer iodine
  • brompheniramine/pseudoephedrine
  • codeine/acetaminophen
  • codeine/guaifenesin
  • beclomethasone inhaled
  • epoetin beta/methoxy polyethylene glycol
  • voreloxin(Orphan Drug)
  • rociletinib
  • pitcher plant
  • phosphatidylserine
  • telotristat ethyl
  • copper CU 64 dotatate
  • urea topical
  • exenatide subdermal implant
  • asenapine transdermal
  • ethiodized oil
  • urea oral
  • miglustat
  • acalisib(Investigational)
  • acetophenazine
  • guggul
  • aceneuramic acid
  • mestranol/norethindrone
  • reishi
  • lactitol
  • vonoprazan fumarate
  • motherwort
  • silver nitrate
  • salicylic acid/sulfur shampoo
  • salicylic acid topical
  • ketorolac ophthalmic
  • ketoconazole topical
  • Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine
  • dibucaine topical ointment
  • ketorolac intranasal
  • ketorolac/phenylephrine ophthalmic
  • rotavirus oral vaccine, live
  • guarana
  • hops
  • krill oil
  • salicylic acid/coal tar shampoo
  • sufentanil SL
  • pancrelipase
  • passion flower
  • pepdite one plus
  • nivolumab and relatlimab
  • relatlimab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • benzalkonium chloride/benzocaine
  • ketotifen, drug-eluting contact lens
  • calcitriol topical
  • oxymetazoline topical
  • alclometasone topical
  • capsaicin topical
  • diclofenac/misoprostol
  • diclofenac ophthalmic
  • diclofenac topical
  • pramoxine/calamine topical
  • veverimer
  • tolazoline
  • olopatadine ophthalmic
  • lutetium lu 177-dota-tate
  • lutetium lu 177 vipivotide tetraxetan
  • strontium 89 chloride
  • interferon alfa n3
  • lutetium Lu 177- Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic acid-omburtamab (FDA Approval Pending)
  • samarium sm 153 lexidronam
  • cytomegalovirus immune globulin (CMV IG)
  • antithymocyte globulin rabbit
  • inolimomab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • olopatadine intranasal
  • olopatadine intranasal/​mometasone, intranasal
  • benzocaine/butamben/tetracaine topical
  • antipyrine/benzocaine/phenylephrine
  • dyclonine/menthol
  • surufatinib
  • fruquintinib
  • dostarlimab
  • hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG)
  • remestemcel-L
  • benzocaine/menthol oropharyngeal
  • interferon beta 1b
  • tetracaine/oxymetazoline intranasal
  • benzocaine oropharyngeal
  • benzalkonium chloride/menthol/petrolatum topical
  • inamrinone
  • alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor
  • potassium bicarbonate/potassium citrate
  • potassium phosphate/sodium acid phosphate
  • asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi recombinant
  • motixafortide
  • pegloticase
  • etesevimab
  • Rho(D) immune globulin
  • tetanus immune globulin (TIG)
  • reltecimod (pending FDA approval)
  • avasopasem
  • trimethoprim/polymyxin B ophthalmic
  • naphazoline ophthalmic
  • sulfacetamide topical
  • sirolimus intravitreal (pending FDA approval)
  • sirolimus protein bound
  • sirolimus topical
  • glycopyrronium tosylate topical
  • sofpironium
  • olmesartan, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide
  • dovitinib (Pending FDA Approval)
  • epinephrine inhaled
  • quizartinib (Pending FDA Approval)
  • ranibizumab intravitreal injection
  • sodium hyaluronate
  • bacitracin and lidocaine topical
  • brimonidine topical
  • benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin topical
  • talquetamab
  • betrixaban
  • acetaminophen/caffeine/pyrilamine
  • fentanyl transmucosal
  • bacitracin topical
  • buprenorphine,long-acting injection
  • buprenorphine buccal
  • nalmefene intranasal
  • sulbactam/durlobactam
  • metronidazole topical 
  • daratumumab/hyaluronidase
  • glofitamab
  • rituximab-hyaluronidase
  • drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol/levomefolate
  • loncastuximab tesirine
  • ingenol mebutate topical
  • momelotinib
  • trastuzumab/deruxtecan
  • trastuzumab/hyaluronidase
  • trastuzumab duocarmazine
  • lifileucel
  • umbralisib
  • eflornithine/sulindac
  • cytarabine/daunorubicin liposomal
  • doxorubicin liposomal
  • epcoritamab
  • lanadelumab  
  • esomeprazole/naproxen 
  • terbinafine topical
  • ravulizumab
  • clotrimazole topical
  • choline magnesium trisalicylate
  • tacrolimus ointment
  • mechlorethamine topical
  • donislecel
  • pozelimab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • human rabies immune globulin (HRIG)
  • melphalan flufenamide
  • sintilimab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • oportuzumab monatox (Pending FDA Approval)
  • sotorasib
  • irinotecan liposomal
  • sulfur topical
  • silver sulfadiazine
  • capsaicin transdermal
  • sutimlimab
  • tretinoin topical
  • acetaminophen rectal
  • menthol topical
  • naftifine
  • oatmeal, colloidal topical
  • oxiconazole
  • methylsalicylate/menthol topical
  • C1 inhibitor human
  • lifitegrast ophthalmic
  • prednisolone/sulfacetamide ophthalmic
  • mannitol inhalation
  • ofloxacin otic
  • petrolatum & mineral oil topical
  • clascoterone topical
  • gefapixant (Pending FDA Approval)
  • colesevelam
  • technetium Tc 99m succimer
  • nebivolol/valsartan
  • ciprofloxacin/fluocinolone acetonide, otic
  • finafloxacin otic
  • magnesium hydroxide/mineral oil
  • phenylephrine/mineral oil/petrolatum rectal
  • carbamide peroxide oral
  • atropine ophthalmic
  • sodium sulfacetamide/sulfur
  • sulfacetamide ophthalmic
  • lucinactant
  • benzonatate
  • besifloxacin ophthalmic
  • benzhydrocodone/acetaminophen
  • beractant
  • trimagnesium citrate anhydrous
  • vitamin b2
  • carbamide peroxide otic
  • mineral oil topical
  • ethyl alcohol intranasal
  • boric acid/alcohol otic
  • absorbable gelatin compressed sponge, USP
  • absorbable gelatin sponge, USP
  • vincristine liposomal
  • technetium Tc 99m albumin aggregated injection
  • metaproterenol
  • budesonide inhaled/formoterol/glycopyrrolate inhaled
  • epinephrine racemic
  • umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol inhaled
  • indacaterol, inhaled/glycopyrrolate inhaled
  • betaine  
  • laronidase 
  • estrogens esterified/methyltestosterone            
  • cerliponase alfa
  • ertugliflozin/sitagliptin
  • hawthorn
  • shepherd’s purse
  • thiamine
  • naphazoline/glycerin ophthalmic
  • oxymetazoline ophthalmic
  • dorzolamide
  • dexamethasone intraocular
  • dexamethasone/ciprofloxacin
  • dexamethasone ophthalmic
  • metipranolol ophthalmic
  • timolol ophthalmic
  • boron
  • fezolinetant
  • pegunigalsidase alfa-iwxj
  • biotin
  • pantothenic acid
  • silicon
  • sodium acid phosphate
  • hypochlorous acid topical
  • methenamine/sodium acid phosphate
  • aviptadil 
  • bremelanotide
  • glucagon intranasal
  • metformin and repaglinide
  • bai ji
  • pau d’arco
  • juzentaihoto
  • mistletoe
  • quercetin
  • rosemary
  • sheng di huang
  • chasteberry
  • maitake
  • grapefruit
  • lentinan
  • juniper
  • nettle
  • parsley
  • rose hips
  • tongkat ali
  • horny goat weed
  • damiana
  • yohimbe
  • insulin NPH
  • aprocitentan
  • noni Juice
  • sodium iodide I-131
  • green tea
  • sea cucumber
  • wheat germ extract
  • fenofibrate micronized 
  • rogisen
  • danshen
  • lutein
  • witch hazel
  • dextroamphetamine transdermal
  • amphetamine/dextroamphetamine
  • hoodia
  • kolanut
  • boswellia
  • opuntia ficus indica
  • lavender
  • nadh
  • tea tree oil
  • metformin/sitagliptin 
  • dapagliflozin/ metformin/saxagliptin  
  • antihemophilic factor recombinant
  • inclisiran
  • bempedoic acid/ezetimibe
  • volanesorsen  
  • omega 3 carboxylic acids
  • pericyazine
  • levomepromazine (methotrimeprazine)
  • betaxolol ophthalmic
  • respiratory syncytial virus vaccine, adjuvanted
  • phenylephrine hydrochloride and tropicamide ophthalmic
  • alirocumab
  • neomycin/polymyxin B/gramicidin ophthalmic
  • factor IX
  • gentamicin topical
  • ansofaxine (Pending FDA Approval)
  • zuranolone
  • factor IX, recombinant
  • factor IX complex
  • factor XIII A-subunit, recombinant
  • factor X, human
  • mesalamine rectal
  • etrasimod
  • anti-inhibitor coagulant complex
  • factor IX, recombinant/albumin fusion protein
  • fibrinogen, human
  • aminocaproic acid
  • metyrosine
  • nonoxynol-9 vaginal
  • progesterone intravaginal gel
  • ipecac syrup
  • botulinum antitoxin, heptavalent
  • pentetate calcium trisodium
  • crotalidae polyvalent immune FAB (ovine)
  • dehydrated alcohol injection 
  • gold sodium thiomalate (Discontinued)
  • lactic acid/citric acid/potassium bitartrate vaginal
  • von Willebrand factor, recombinant
  • luspatercept
  • digoxin immune FAB (Antidote)
  • crotalidae immune FAB (equine)
  • magnesium (Antidote)
  • pyridoxine (Antidote)
  • edetate calcium disodium
  • albumin IV
  • nitroglycerin sublingual
  • obiltoxaximab
  • anthrax immune globulin
  • nitroglycerin topical
  • dextrose
  • nesiritide
  • estradiol vaginal
  • bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens
  • botulism immune globulin iv
  • amoxicillin/omeprazole/rifabutin
  • synthetic human angiotensin II
  • nitroglycerin IV
  • nitroglycerin translingual
  • nitroprusside sodium
  • tetrahydrozoline/zinc sulfate/hypromellose ophthalmic
  • sodium citrate/citric acid
  • pemetrexate
  • methicillin
  • plasminogen 
  • acai
  • american ginseng
  • cordyceps
  • tramadol/acetaminophen
  • belladonna alkaloids/phenobarbital
  • erythromycin topical/benzoyl peroxide
  • glucosamine sulfate
  • panax ginseng (suppl/herb)
  • tolnaftate
  • sulopenem etzadroxil/probenecid
  • sulfur hexafluoride
  • sotrovimab
  • arbaclofen
  • rifampin/isoniazid
  • clindamycin /tretinoin topical
  • benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin topical
  • apremilast
  • antivenins, centuroides (scorpion)
  • bamlanivimab and etesevimab
  • vilobelimab
  • gadobenate
  • pentosan polysulfate sodium
  • methylsalicylate/menthol/camphor topical
  • antivenin, black widow spider
  • benzoyl peroxide and hydrocortisone
  • clindamycin topical
  • isometheptene, dichloralphenazone and acetaminophen
  • acetaminophen and phenyltoloxamine
  • erythromycin topical
  • erythromycin ophthalmic
  • alpha hydroxy acids, topical
  • buprenorphine transdermal
  • butalbital/acetaminophen/caffeine
  • buprenorphine/samidorphan
  • buprenorphine subdermal implant
  • celecoxib/tramadol
  • drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol
  • resorcinol/sulfur
  • eflornithine
  • rifampin/isoniazid/pyrazinamide
  • tofersen
  • devil’s claw
  • ticarcillin/clavulanate
  • atropine/pralidoxime
  • aprepitant
  • suramin
  • phenelzine 
  • artichoke
  • american dogwood
  • attapulgite
  • atlantic cedar
  • axalimogene filolisbac
  • sodium thiosulfate & sodium nitrite
  • ataluren
  • omidubicel-onlv
  • capsicum
  • ginger
  • cryoprecipitate
  • bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF
  • emtricitabine/tenofovir DF
  • fo-ti
  • siberian ginseng
  • granulocytes
  • zinc substituted heme C
  • zinc trihydroxide
  • ashwagandha 
  • cat’s claw
  • glandular products
  • SAMe
  • shark cartilage
  • altovis
  • feverfew
  • horse chestnut
  • magnesium aspartate
  • octacosanol
  • pleurisy root
  • star anise
  • butterbur
  • elderberry
  • licorice (Suppl/herb)
  • aconite
  • pentetate zinc trisodium
  • menthol topical/zinc oxide topical
  • corn-starch/kaolin/zinc oxide topical
  • 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-htp)
  • butcher’s broom
  • articulin
  • bearberry
  • goldenrod
  • progesterone, natural
  • black cohosh
  • wild yam
  • cranberry
  • dong quai
  • phytoestrogens
  • norethindrone
  • false Unicorn Root
  • raspberry Leaf
  • asafoetida
  • turmeric
  • dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
  • hyaluronan
  • aliskiren/amlodipine
  • octreotide (Antidote)
  • tranexamic acid injection
  • duocal
  • neocate infant formula
  • pediatric Eo28
  • aloe
  • red clover
  • propolis
  • androstenedione
  • heartsease
  • comfrey
  • bilberry
  • chamomile
  • eyebright
  • calendula
  • sage
  • yucca
  • polypody
  • odevixibat
  • vinpocetine
  • olanzapine/samidorphan
  • creatine
  • yerba mate
  • spesolimab
  • azficel-T
  • tiludronate
  • estetrol and drospirenone
  • pseudoephedrine/fexofenadine
  • lincomycin
  • neomycin oral
  • fluocinolone acetonide, otic
  • tretinoin/ hydroquinone/ fluocinolone
  • halobetasol topical
  • hydrocortisone/​iodoquinol
  • penicillin G procaine /penicillin G benzathine
  • hydrocortisone probutate topical
  • colistin/neomycin/hydrocortisone/thonzonium otic
  • ebola zaire vaccine
  • hepatitis a/​b vaccine
  • vibegron
  • lindane
  • nystatin topical
  • respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine
  • chikungunya vaccine, live
  • tenecteplase
  • reteplase
  • anthrax vaccine adsorbed, adjuvanted
  • meningococcal ABCWY pentavalent vaccine
  • eculizumab
  • cholestyramine
  • tinzaparin
  • taurolidine/​citrate/​heparin
  • protein C concentrate
  • antithrombin alfa
  • antithrombin III
  • multivitamins, vision
  • ibuprofen/​chlorpheniramine/​pseudoephedrine
  • acetaminophen/ibuprofen
  • ibuprofen/pseudoephedrine
  • paclitaxel protein-bound
  • acetic acid vaginal
  • acetic acid otic
  • hydrocodone/ ibuprofen
  • methyl salicylate / isopropanol/ citronellyl acetate/ citric acid
  • ibuprofen and phenylephrine
  • acetylcysteine (Antidote)
  • iron/​folic acid/​vitamin/​mineral
  • iobenguane I-131
  • dolutegravir/rilpivirine
  • chlorhexidine topical
  • chlorhexidine oral
  • thyroid desiccated
  • proparacaine ophthalmic
  • podophyllum resin
  • phendimetrazine
  • phenoxybenzamine
  • polidocanol
  • phentermine and topiramate
  • piflufolastat F18
  • piperacillin/tazobactam
  • prednisolone and gentamicin ophthalmic
  • promethazine and codeine
  • poractant alfa
  • protamine sulfate
  • aflibercept intravitreal
  • prednicarbate
  • promethazine/dextromethorphan
  • codeine, phenylephrine, and promethazine
  • potassium phosphate
  • glatiramer acetate
  • gentamicin (Ophthalmic)
  • leniolisib
  • rezafungin
  • fluorometholone
  • dalfampridine
  • hydrocortisone topical 
  • empagliflozin and linagliptin
  • triamcinolone topical
  • minocycline topical
  • minocycline dental
  • ketotifen ophthalmic
  • darunavir and cobicistat
  • lidocaine topical
  • neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin/lidocaine (OTC)
  • lidocaine/ hydrocortisone
  • lidocaine anesthetic
  • lidocaine ophthalmic
  • lidocaine/tetracaine
  • desonide
  • dabigatran
  • fexofenadine
  • fluoride
  • decitabine and cedazuridine
  • dasiglucagon
  • hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic
  • epoetin alfa
  • ibritumomab tiuxetan
  • trimethobenzamide
  • dexamethasone/ tobramycin
  • tafasitamab
  • valacyclovir
  • mebendazole
  • levoleucovorin
  • flaxseed
  • germanium
  • glutathione
  • lycopene
  • pygeum
  • horseradish
  • ziv-aflibercept
  • micafungin
  • trofinetide
  • taliglucerase alfa
  • tildrakizumab
  • sulopenem (Pending FDA Approval)
  • thyrotropin alfa
  • birch
  • thrombin, topical
  • tivozanib
  • tafluprost
  • methohexital
  • urea and hydrocortisone
  • unoprostone ophthalmic
  • trihexyphenidyl
  • ezetimibe
  • evolocumab
  • trifluridine and tipiracil
  • methenamine
  • misoprostol
  • miltefosine
  • rimantadine
  • maralixibat
  • coenzyme Q10
  • chlorella
  • garlic
  • forskolin
  • zavegepant
  • menotropins
  • margetuximab
  • meprobamate
  • melarsoprol
  • evening primrose oil
  • lemongrass
  • molindone
  • fenugreek
  • phytosterols
  • red yeast rice
  • uridine triacetate
  • tropicamide
  • incobotulinumtoxinA
  • Grape Seed Extract
  • carbachol ophthalmic
  • cosyntropin
  • cyclopentolate and phenylephrine
  • carteolol ophthalmic
  • pentazocine/naloxone
  • pentazocine/acetaminophen
  • casimersen
  • carisoprodol, aspirin, and codeine
  • carisoprodol
  • carboprost tromethamine
  • flurandrenolide
  • brinzolamide/brimonidine
  • betamethasone topical
  • omaveloxolone
  • bardoxolone
  • allogeneic processed thymus tissue
  • fluocinolone topical
  • tacrolimus topical
  • ruxolitinib topical
  • pimecrolimus topical
  • sofosbuvir, velpatasvir and voxilaprevir
  • sofosbuvir/velpatasvir
  • mitotane
  • elbasvir/​grazoprevir
  • wheat dextrin
  • vanadium
  • iron/folic acid/vitamin/mineral
  • molybdenum
  • sparsentan
  • velmanase alfa-tycv
  • pegcetacoplan
  • ferrous sulfate
  • cyclosporine ophthalmic
  • ferric pyrophosphate
  • ammonium lactate
  • etelcalcetide
  • iodoquinol
  • sucroferric oxyhydroxide
theophylline + 

abiraterone

may enhance the concentration of serum when combined with theophylline derivatives

mibefradil

may enhance the concentration of serum when combined with theophylline derivatives

diacerein

may enhance the concentration of serum when combined with theophylline derivatives

tranylcypromine

may enhance the concentration of serum when combined with theophylline derivatives

anastrozole

may enhance the concentration of serum when combined with theophylline derivatives

viloxazine 

viloxazine: they may enhance the serum concentration of theophylline derivatives

isoprenaline

theophylline derivatives: they may increase the toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists

albuterol

theophylline derivatives: they may increase the toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists

indacaterol

theophylline derivatives: they may increase the toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists

levosalbutamol

theophylline derivatives: they may increase the toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists

olodaterol

theophylline derivatives: they may increase the toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists

propranolol

theophylline: they may decrease the bronchodilatory effect of Beta-Blockers

abediterol

theophylline: they may increase the hypertensive effect of sympathomimetics

noradrenaline

theophylline: they may increase the hypertensive effect of sympathomimetics

dextroamphetamine

theophylline: they may increase the hypertensive effect of sympathomimetics

tetrahydrozoline nasal

theophylline: they may increase the hypertensive effect of sympathomimetics

oxymetazoline

theophylline: they may increase the hypertensive effect of sympathomimetics

ascorbigen 

ascorbigen, when used in combination with theophylline, the efficacy of theophylline is lowered

norfloxacin

quinolones increase the concentration of theophylline derivatives in serum

osilodrostat 

may enhance the serum concentration of CYP3A4 inhibitors

norethynodrel 

the rate of excretion of norethynodrel may be decreased

 

Dosage Forms & Strengths 

extended-release tablet (12 hours) 

450mg 

300mg 

200mg 

100mg 

extended-release capsule (24 hours) 

400mg 

300mg 

200mg 

100mg 

extended-release tablet (24 hours) 

600mg 

400mg 

intravenous solution 

800mg/500mL D5W 

400mg/500mL D5W 

400mg/250mL D5W 

oral elixir 

80mg/15mL 

Bronchospasm 

Starting dose:
Patients who are not using theophylline: 5 to 7 mg/kg Intravenous/orally;
maximum 25 mg/minute Intravenous
Aminophylline: 6 to 7 mg/kg intravenous infusion over 20 mins.
Maintenance dose:
0.4 to 0.6 mg/kg hourly intravenous or orally 4.8 to 7.2 mg/kg (extended release) every 2 times a day to maintain 10-15 mg/L
Smokers: a dose of 0.79 mg/kg/hr Intravenous for 12 hours following loading dosage, thereafter 0.63 mg/kg/hr or Orally 5 mg/kg (extended release) every 3 times a day.
Coadministration with Cimetidine, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and macrolides inhibit theophylline clearance: 0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg/hr Intravenous or Orally (extended release) every 1-2 times a day
CHF: 0.39 mg/kg/hr Intravenous for 12 hours following loading dosage, thereafter 0.08 to 0.16 mg/kg/hr.



Dose Adjustments

Dosage Modifications
liver impairment: After loading dosage, 0.39 mg/kg/hr Intravenously for following 12 hours, thereafter 0.08 to 0.16 mg/kg/hr

 

Dosage Forms & Strengths 

extended-release tablet (12 hours) 

450mg 

300mg 

200mg 

100mg 

extended-release capsule (24 hours) 

400mg 

300mg 

200mg 

100mg 

extended-release tablet (24 hours) 

600mg 

400mg 

intravenous solution 

800mg/500mL D5W 

400mg/500mL D5W 

400mg/250mL D5W 

oral elixir 

80mg/15mL 

Bronchospasm 

Bronchospasm
starting dose:
theophylline has not been given in the last 24 hrs: 5-7 mg/kg Intravenous/orally; intravenous infusion over 20 to 30 min. Maintenance dose:
1.5-6 months: Give 0.5 mg/kg/hr Intravenously or Orally 10 mg/kg daily in the divided doses
6-12 months: Give 0.6 to 0.7 mg/kg/hr Intravenously or Orally 12-18 mg/kg daily in the divided doses.
1-9 yrs: Give 1 mg/kg hourly Intravenously or Orally 8 mg/kg (extended release) every 3 times a day
9 to 12 yrs: Give 0.8 to 0.9 mg/kg hourly Intravenously or Orally 6.4 mg/kg (extended release) every 3 times a day
12 to 16 yrs: Give 0.7 mg/kg hourly Intravenously or Orally 5.6 mg/kg (extended release) every 3 times a day



 

Refer to the adult dosing regimen 

Frequency not defined 

Peak serum concentration above 30 mcg/mL 

  • Seizures 
  • Acute myocardial infarction 
  • Urinary retention 

Peak serum concentration below 20 mcg/mL 

  • Diarrhea, vomiting, nausea 
  • Exfoliative dermatitis 
  • Tachycardia, flutter 
  • Difficulty urinating 
  • CNS excitement, insomnia, restlessness, headache, irritability, seizure 
  • Diuresis 
  • Skeletal muscle tremors 
  • Hypercalcemia 

Black Box Warning: 

theophylline carries a black box warning due to the potential for serious and potentially life-threatening side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias and seizures.

Close monitoring of blood levels is essential to maintain therapeutic levels while avoiding toxicity. Adverse effects can occur even within the therapeutic range, necessitating careful patient selection and monitoring. 

Contraindication/Caution: 

Contraindication: 

theophylline is contraindicated in individuals with a known hypersensitivity to the drug or its components. It should be avoided in patients with peptic ulcer disease, uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmias, severe hypotension, or recent myocardial infarction. Additionally, theophylline should not be used in patients with acute porphyria or during acute exacerbations of asthma or COPD.  

Caution: 

  • Cardiac disorders: theophylline may cause or worsen cardiac arrhythmias, so caution is needed in patients with heart conditions such as arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, or ischemic heart disease. 
  • Liver and kidney impairment: theophylline is primarily metabolized in liver and excreted by kidneys. Impaired liver or kidney function can affect the clearance of the drug, requiring dosage adjustments and careful monitoring. 
  • Peptic ulcer disease: theophylline can increase gastric acid secretion, potentially exacerbating peptic ulcer disease. 
  • Seizure disorders: theophylline can lower the seizure threshold, so caution is advised in patients with a history of seizures or epilepsy. 
  • Thyroid disorders: theophylline may affect thyroid hormone levels, so caution is needed in patients with thyroid disorders, including hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. 
  • Elderly patients: older adults may be more susceptible to the side effects of theophylline, including cardiac arrhythmias and central nervous system stimulation.

Comorbidities: 

  • Cardiovascular disease: theophylline can stimulate the heart and may cause or worsen cardiac arrhythmias. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions such as arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, or coronary artery disease require careful monitoring. 
  • Hypertension: theophylline can increase blood pressure. Patients with hypertension or uncontrolled high blood pressure should be monitored closely during theophylline therapy. 
  • Liver disease: theophylline is primarily metabolized in the liver, and liver impairment can affect its clearance. 
  • Kidney disease: theophylline is excreted by the kidneys, and impaired kidney function can lead to drug accumulation. Patients with kidney disease may require dosage adjustments and close monitoring of theophylline levels. 
  • Peptic ulcer disease: theophylline can increase gastric acid secretion and may aggravate peptic ulcer disease. Caution is needed in patients with peptic ulcers or gastrointestinal bleeding. 
  • Seizure disorders: theophylline can lower the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures, especially at high doses. Patients with seizures or epilepsy should be closely monitored. 
  • Thyroid disorders: theophylline can affect thyroid hormone levels, and caution is needed in patients with thyroid disorders such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. 

Pregnancy consideration: US FDA pregnancy category: C 

Lactation: theophylline gets excreted into the human milk  

Pregnancy category: 

  • Category A: well-controlled and Satisfactory studies show no risk to the fetus in the first or later trimester. 
  • Category B: there was no evidence of risk to the fetus in animal studies, and there were not enough studies on pregnant women. 
  • Category C: there was evidence of risk of adverse effects in animal reproduction studies, and no adequate evidence in human studies must take care of potential risks in pregnant women.   
  • Category D: adequate data with sufficient evidence of human fetal risk from various platforms, but despite the potential risk, and used only in emergency cases for potential benefits. 
  • Category X: Drugs listed in this category outweigh the risks over benefits. Hence these categories of drugs need to be avoided by pregnant women. 
  • Category N: There is no data available for the drug under this category. 

Pharmacology: 

theophylline is a methylxanthine derivative with multiple pharmacological effects. It acts as a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, leading to increased intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). This results in bronchodilation, relaxation of smooth muscles, and anti-inflammatory effects in the respiratory system. 

theophylline also antagonizes adenosine receptors, which can lead to bronchodilation and increased cardiac contractility. It stimulates the central nervous system, promoting respiratory drive and reducing fatigue of the diaphragm. 

The pharmacological effects of theophylline include bronchodilation, increased mucociliary clearance, anti-inflammatory actions, and improved respiratory muscle strength.  

Pharmacodynamics: 

theophylline exerts its pharmacodynamic effects through multiple mechanisms of action. It acts as a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, preventing the breakdown of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). This results in bronchial smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation, improving airflow in the lungs. 

theophylline also has central nervous system stimulant effects. It stimulates the medullary respiratory center, promoting increased respiratory drive and reducing fatigue of the diaphragm. It inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators, such as histamine and leukotrienes, and reduces the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells, leading to decreased airway inflammation.  

Pharmacokinetics: 

Absorption 

theophylline is well-absorbed after oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations achieved within 1-2 hours. The absorption rate can be influenced by various factors, such as the formulation, food intake, and individual patient characteristics. 

Distribution 

Theophylline has a large volume of distribution, indicating its extensive distribution throughout body tissues. 

Metabolism 

theophylline undergoes hepatic metabolism primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, specifically the CYP1A2 isoenzyme. It is metabolized into several active metabolites, including 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 3-methylxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine. Genetic variations in CYP1A2 activity can affect theophylline metabolism. 

Elimination and excretion 

theophylline and its metabolites are primarily excreted in the urine. Renal clearance is an important factor in determining theophylline levels in the body. The elimination half-life of theophylline is influenced by factors such as age, liver function, and co-administration of other medications. 

Administration: 

  • Oral tablets or capsules: theophylline is commonly taken orally with water. It is important to follow dose instructions and take the medication with or after a meal to minimize stomach upset. 
  • Intravenous (IV) infusion: In certain situations, such as in critical care settings or when oral administration is not possible, theophylline can be administered intravenously. This requires a healthcare professional to administer the medication directly into a vein. 
  • Extended-release formulations: Extended-release formulations of theophylline are available, which provide a sustained release of the medication over a longer period. These formulations are typically taken once or twice daily, and it is important not to crush or chew these tablets as it may affect their release characteristics. 

Patient information leaflet 

Generic Name: theophylline 

Pronounced: [ thee-OFF-i-lin ]  

Why do we use theophylline? 

  • Asthma: theophylline is used as a bronchodilator to relieve and prevent symptoms of asthma, such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. 
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): theophylline can help improve breathing in individuals with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. 
  • Apnea of prematurity: theophylline may be used in premature infants to stimulate breathing and prevent apnea (pauses in breathing). 
  • Chronic lung diseases: theophylline may be prescribed for other chronic lung conditions, such as bronchiectasis and interstitial lung diseases. 
  • Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: theophylline can be used to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in individuals who experience asthma symptoms during physical activity. 
  • Pulmonary hypertension: theophylline may be used as an adjunct therapy for certain types of pulmonary hypertension. 

theophylline

Brand Name :

Theochron, aminophylline, Theo 24, Elixophyllin, Uniphyl

Synonyms :

theophylline

Class :

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors, Nonselective; Xanthine Derivatives




No data available for drug.

Dosage Forms & Strengths 

extended-release tablet (12 hours) 

450mg 

300mg 

200mg 

100mg 

extended-release capsule (24 hours) 

400mg 

300mg 

200mg 

100mg 

extended-release tablet (24 hours) 

600mg 

400mg 

intravenous solution 

800mg/500mL D5W 

400mg/500mL D5W 

400mg/250mL D5W 

oral elixir 

80mg/15mL 

Bronchospasm 

Starting dose:
Patients who are not using theophylline: 5 to 7 mg/kg Intravenous/orally;
maximum 25 mg/minute Intravenous
Aminophylline: 6 to 7 mg/kg intravenous infusion over 20 mins.
Maintenance dose:
0.4 to 0.6 mg/kg hourly intravenous or orally 4.8 to 7.2 mg/kg (extended release) every 2 times a day to maintain 10-15 mg/L
Smokers: a dose of 0.79 mg/kg/hr Intravenous for 12 hours following loading dosage, thereafter 0.63 mg/kg/hr or Orally 5 mg/kg (extended release) every 3 times a day.
Coadministration with Cimetidine, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and macrolides inhibit theophylline clearance: 0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg/hr Intravenous or Orally (extended release) every 1-2 times a day
CHF: 0.39 mg/kg/hr Intravenous for 12 hours following loading dosage, thereafter 0.08 to 0.16 mg/kg/hr.



Dose Adjustments

Dosage Modifications
liver impairment: After loading dosage, 0.39 mg/kg/hr Intravenously for following 12 hours, thereafter 0.08 to 0.16 mg/kg/hr

Dosage Forms & Strengths 

extended-release tablet (12 hours) 

450mg 

300mg 

200mg 

100mg 

extended-release capsule (24 hours) 

400mg 

300mg 

200mg 

100mg 

extended-release tablet (24 hours) 

600mg 

400mg 

intravenous solution 

800mg/500mL D5W 

400mg/500mL D5W 

400mg/250mL D5W 

oral elixir 

80mg/15mL 

Bronchospasm 

Bronchospasm
starting dose:
theophylline has not been given in the last 24 hrs: 5-7 mg/kg Intravenous/orally; intravenous infusion over 20 to 30 min. Maintenance dose:
1.5-6 months: Give 0.5 mg/kg/hr Intravenously or Orally 10 mg/kg daily in the divided doses
6-12 months: Give 0.6 to 0.7 mg/kg/hr Intravenously or Orally 12-18 mg/kg daily in the divided doses.
1-9 yrs: Give 1 mg/kg hourly Intravenously or Orally 8 mg/kg (extended release) every 3 times a day
9 to 12 yrs: Give 0.8 to 0.9 mg/kg hourly Intravenously or Orally 6.4 mg/kg (extended release) every 3 times a day
12 to 16 yrs: Give 0.7 mg/kg hourly Intravenously or Orally 5.6 mg/kg (extended release) every 3 times a day



Refer to the adult dosing regimen 

DRUG INTERACTION

theophylline

&

  • clomiphene
  • patisiran
  • imetelstat
  • phenylephrine ophthalmic
  • myoinositol
  • vasicinone
  • soda lime
  • fisetin
  • Reynoutria Japonica
  • Coco Monoethanolamide
  • Betadex
  • lithopone
  • cyperus rotundus
  • papaya juice
  • 1-naphthaleneacetic acid
  • Nordazepam
  • Glechoma hederacea
  • Alternanthera sessilis
  • nicofetamide
  • napthol asol
  • cocamidopropyl betaine
  • musa x paradisiaca
  • dicyclomine/mefenamic acid
  • Sorghum
  • Manganese citrate
  • tovorafenib
  • mefenamic acid/paracetamol
  • eschscholzia californica
  • canna indica root
  • tranexamic acid/mefenamic acid
  • dexverapamil
  • sitogluside
  • secalciferol
  • cefatrizine
  • Sedum Acre
  • Flurogestone
  • Fluocortin
  • Bifendate
  • piprozolin
  • aminacrine undecylate
  • ethylenediamine mandelate
  • pelubiprofen
  • hesperetin
  • butethamine
  • epitiostanol
  • androstenediol
  • Nitroxoline
  • Iocarmic acid
  • Capobenic acid
  • dordaviprone (investigational drug)
  • Vitexin
  • Friluglanstat (investigational drug)
  • scorias spongiosa
  • Luseogliflozin
  • indoxacarb
  • prademagene zamikeracel
  • fidanacogene elaparvovec-dzkt
  • albifylline
  • idanpramine
  • araneus diadematus
  • Sulfamazone
  • Lycosa tarantula
  • malotilate
  • Ethacizine
  • Namilumab
  • Latrunculin B
  • stachyose
  • platinic oxide
  • iopronic acid
  • calcium chloride / potassium chloride/lactic acid/ sodium chloride/sodium hydroxide/sodium lactate solution
  • citric acid/ sodium bicarbonate/ sodium carbonate anhydrous
  • vadadustat
  • permethrin medical grade cis/trans isomers 25/75
  • lutetium, isotope of mass 177
  • human normal immunoglobulin
  • sacrosidase
  • apadamtase alfa, recombinant
  • acetyl hexapeptide-8 amide
  • pemivibart (Investigational)
  • govorestat
  • Zanidatamab
  • sotatеrcеpt
  • MV 140 vaccine
  • leuprorelin implant
  • cinchocaine hydrochloride/fluocortolone hexanoate/fluocortolone pivalate
  • Beautyberry
  • risedronate/calcium/vitamin D3
  • rhubarb extract/senna leaf/sulphur purified/wood charcoal
  • boric acid/kaolin/methyl salicylate/peppermint oil/thymol
  • docosahexaenoic acid/eicospentaenoic acid
  • aluminium hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide/simethicone
  • gentamicin/hydrocortisone
  • succinylcholine
  • sinefungin
  • letibotulinumtoxinA
  • coal tar/coconut oil/salicylic acid
  • camphor/camphor oil white/capsicum oleoresin /menthol/methyl salicylate
  • thioglycolic acid
  • acetic acid auricular
  • roluperidone
  • hydrocortisone/crotamiton topical
  • nystatin/chlorhexidine
  • aluminium chloride hexahydrate
  • ketoprofen topical
  • Chlormethine
  • podophyllotoxin
  • urea/lactic acid
  • autologous chondrocytes implant
  • afelimomab
  • gepotidacin
  • fludroxycortide
  • fentanyl transdermal
  • erythromycin/zinc acetate
  • dibotermin alfa powder
  • desferrioxamine mesilate
  • choline salicylate/magnesium salicylate
  • castor oil/peru balsam/trypsin
  • betamethasone/dexchlorpheniramine maleate
  • benzalkonium chloride solution/cetrimide
  • barzolvolimab
  • ascorbic acid / calcium laevulinate / nicotinamide / calcium pantothenate / calcium chloride / riboflavine / pyridoxine hydrochloride / thiamine hydrochloride
  • argipressin
  • arachis oil refined/chlorobutanol hemihydrate
  • arachis oil/eucalyptol/nutmeg oil/terpineol
  • ammonium chloride/diphenhydramine hydrochloride/levomenthol
  • amino acid mixture d / calcium chloride dihydrate / glucose monohydrate / glycine / magnesium chloride hexahydrate / olive oil / potassium chloride / sodium acetate trihydrate / sodium glycerophosphate pentahydrate / soya-bean oil
  • biotin/colecalciferol/copper (ii)sulfate dried/ cyanocobalamine/ dl-alpha tocopherol acetate/dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous/folic acid/iron (ii)sulfate dried/ lecithin/ magnesium sulfate dried/ nicotinamide/ pyridoxine hydrochloride/ riboflavin
  • ampicillin sodium / cloxacillin sodium
  • undecylenic acid, undecylenate salts, zincundecate
  • omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate
  • efgartigimod alfa/hyaluronidase
  • xylometazoline/ipratropium
  • cefepime and enmetazobactam
  • isotonic sodium chloride
  • bee venom allergen injection
  • fentanyl intranasal
  • alglucosidase alfa
  • triprolidine/pseudoephedrine
  • pegademase bovine
  • castor oil and peru balsam
  • camphor/eucalyptus oil/menthol
  • oxyquinoline/sodium lauryl sulfate
  • somatorelin
  • menotrophin injection
  • menadiol
  • hylan g-f 20
  • cefepime and taniborbactum
  • water avens
  • camphor/menthol
  • acoramidis
  • elafibranor
  • arrowroot
  • miconazole nitrate/hydrocortisone
  • vildagliptin/metformin
  • dobesilic acid
  • aroxybutynin and atomoxetine
  • hygromycin
  • linvoseltamab
  • nemolizumab
  • aceprometazine
  • limaprost
  • oxazolam
  • trimegestone
  • teceleukin
  • beauty berry
  • dinotefuran
  • imiprothrin
  • transfluthrin
  • thymalfasin
  • technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept
  • glepaglutide
  • marstacimab
  • pixantrone
  • Andiroba
  • arabinoxylan
  • arenaria rubra
  • etripamil
  • jequirity
  • jiaogulan
  • dusquetide
  • rolipram
  • tradipitant
  • sinfungin
  • diclofenac/omeprazole
  • brinzolamide and timolol maleate
  • wormseed
  • wormwood
  • wood sorrel
  • carmellose sodium
  • ibandronic acid
  • cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate
  • ursodeoxycholic acid
  • rhubarb extract/salicylic acid
  • butamirate citrate
  • fumitory
  • taheebo
  • uva ursi
  • vervain
  • coleus
  • coltsfoot
  • crampbark
  • plantain
  • potassium nitrate and silver nitrate
  • gelsemium
  • gentian
  • glucomannan
  • walnut
  • meadowsweet
  • midomafetamine
  • pennyroyal
  • periwinkle
  • betony
  • bitter orange
  • bladderwrack
  • bloodroot
  • emu oil
  • garcinia
  • yellow dock
  • burdock
  • dehydroepiandrosterone
  • aucubin
  • jasmone
  • resacetophenone
  • ecamsule ditriethanolamine
  • feclobuzone
  • fenoprop triethanolamine
  • verdyl acetate
  • caffeic acid
  • cyclamen aldehyde
  • dicetyldimonium chloride
  • wogonin
  • impacarzine
  • laurylpyridinium chloride
  • stepronin
  • matrine
  • sakuranin
  • cannabichromene
  • sandalore
  • sabinene
  • oxypaeoniflora
  • ethylhexyl pelargonate
  • acrylonitrile
  • allyl alcohol
  • dipalmitoylethyl hydroxyethylmonium methosulfate
  • butidrine
  • clothiapine
  • propanediol dicaprylate
  • buchu
  • undecanol
  • enilconazole
  • xymenynic acid
  • angelica
  • nizubaglustat
  • resomelagon
  • ulecaciclib
  • apple cider vinegar
  • bacopa
  • barley grass
  • dandelion
  • deer velvet
  • dolomite
  • bugleweed
  • bupleurum
  • glyceryltrinitrate
  • pociredir
  • asnuciclib
  • actalycabtagene autoleucel
  • butantan–dengue vaccine
  • travoprost/timolol
  • furosemide/potassium chloride
  • amylamine
  • jaborandi
  • patritumab deruxtecan
  • jackfruit
  • sterculia
  • ascorbigen
  • ashitaba
  • androstenetrione
  • andrachne
  • cosibelimab
  • racecadotril
  • neomycin/chlorhexidine
  • octocog alfa
  • cetrimide
  • ispaghula husk
  • polyhexanide
  • octenidine
  • polygeline
  • heparinoid
  • jewelweed
  • boldo
  • anizatrectinib
  • alpinia
  • henbane
  • cynanchum vincetoxicum root and sulfur
  • boditrectinib
  • izumerogant
  • zavondemstat
  • abuta
  • fadogia agrestis
  • fly agaric mushroom
  • meptazinol
  • methoxyflurane
  • tramadol/dexketoprofen
  • betaine/polyhexanide
  • filgotinib
  • inosine acedoben dimepranol
  • alverine citrate
  • hyoscine butylbromide
  • senna+ ispaghula
  • cabbage palm
  • cajeput oil
  • calanus oil
  • calamint
  • canada balsam
  • carnosine
  • alverine citrate/simeticone
  • dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine
  • mebeverine/ispaghula
  • calcipotriol
  • tacalcitol
  • triethyl citrate/ethyl linoleate
  • sodium dilauramidoglutamide lysine
  • fazamorexant
  • avibactam tomilopil and ceftibuten
  • drostanolone
  • tigilanol tiglate
  • isorhynchophylline
  • rhynchophylline
  • crisugabalin
  • epigallocatechin gallate
  • clomocycline
  • corynoxeine
  • isocorynoxeine
  • Culmerciclib
  • Neladenoson
  • ambrein
  • hexylcaine
  • phensuximide
  • resencatinib (investigational)
  • rolusafine
  • pumecitinib
  • arhalofenic acid
  • berdazimer sodium
  • benzquinamide
  • clidinium
  • sulfametopyrazine
  • fulzerasib (Investigational Drug)
  • rovadicitinib (Investigational Drug)
  • Upleganan (Investigational Drug)
  • menthyl ethylamido oxalate
  • quaternium-90 montmorillonite
  • unecritinib (investigational drug)
  • etohexadiol
  • guaiol
  • proximadiol
  • verdinexor
  • sofnobrutinib
  • talbutal
  • ethoxzolamide
  • propiomazine
  • enprofylline
  • phenmetrazine
  • merigolix
  • pralurbactam
  • neracorvir
  • vonifimod
  • apaziquone hydroquinone
  • darizmetinib
  • zandelisib
  • xininurad
  • ritivixibat
  • amiselimod phosphate (investigational drug)
  • emzeltrectinib (investigational drug)
  • ficonalkib
  • cinalukast
  • ulobetasol
  • candoxatril
  • nitrofural
  • acetyldigitoxin
  • bentiromide
  • dextrothyroxine
  • chlorotrianisene
  • remikiren
  • pipobroman
  • vidarabine
  • immune globulin intravenous, human-stwk
  • spermine
  • serine
  • N-acetyl glucosamine
  • valine
  • adenine
  • asparagine
  • citrulline
  • adinazolam
  • interferon alfacon-1
  • interferon alfa-n1
  • felypressin
  • birch triterpenes
  • pyridoxal phosphate
  • technetium Tc-99m arcitumomab
  • beta-alanine
  • dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid
  • urea/hydrocortisone
  • R21/Matrix-M vaccine
  • povidone-iodine (ophthalmic)
  • pheniramine
  • hydrocortisone rectal
  • chloroxylenol/pramoxine/zinc acetate
  • chloroxylenol/pramoxine
  • dextrose/sucrose/vitamin C/zinc sulphate
  • furazolidone/metronidazole/dicyclomine
  • ergocalciferol (vitamin D2)
  • benoxaprofen (discontinued)
  • teicoplanin
  • carbomer
  • chromic chloride / iron (ii) chloride tetrahydrate / potassium iodide / manganese chloride / sodium fluoride / sodium selenite pentahydrate / sodium molybdate dihydrate / zinc chloride/ cupric chloride
  • bufylline
  • lidocaine/prilocaine
  • opium tincture, squill oxymel
  • dibrompropamidine
  • metronidazole/tetracycline/bismuth subsalicylate
  • agnus- castus
  • velaglucerase alfa
  • alendronic acid / colecalciferol
  • bimatoprost / timolol
  • efbemalenograstim alfa
  • dried ferrous sulfate/folic acid
  • dried ferrous sulfate / sodium ascorbate
  • nirogacestat
  • soya-bean oil, medium-chain triglycerides
  • demeclocycline hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide
  • fusidic acid / hydrocortisone acetate
  • macrogol
  • storax, benzoin
  • nomegestrol acetate/estradiol
  • flumetasone pivalate/ clioquinol
  • berdazimer topical (Pending FDA Approval)
  • buflomedil
  • butobarbital
  • andexanet alfa
  • methoxypolyethylene glycol-epoetin beta
  • viscum abietis
  • pramoxine vaginal
  • bupivacaine implant
  • cromolyn sodium, inhaled
  • pneumococcal vaccine 20-valent
  • bimatoprost ophthalmic implant
  • tick-borne encephalitis vaccine
  • chloroprocaine ophthalmic
  • travoprost intraocular implant (Pending FDA approval)
  • typhoid polysaccharide vaccine
  • sodium phosphate rectal
  • human papillomavirus vaccine, nonavalent
  • peanut immunotherapy epicutaneous (FDA approval pending)
  • cromolyn sodium, intranasal
  • red blood cells(Blood component)
  • oral mucoadhesive
  • clindamycin vaginal
  • whole blood (Blood Component)
  • fibrinogen/thrombin
  • levothyroxine/liothyronine
  • ipratropium intranasal
  • metronidazole vaginal
  • cyamemazine
  • brinase
  • reviparin
  • ulinastatin
  • saruplase
  • acepromazine
  • emylcamate
  • methionine
  • amino acids and electrolytes in dextrose with calcium
  • slippery elm
  • camostat
  • hemoglobin crosfumaril
  • moperone
  • chlormidazole
  • brilaroxazine
  • palopegteriparatide
  • diazepam buccal
  • benegrastim (pending for FDA approval)
  • COVID-19 vaccine, adjuvanted-Novavax
  • vestronidase alfa-vjbk
  • tebipenem (Pending FDA Approval)
  • tislelizumab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • zolbetuximab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • zoliflodacin (pending FDA approval)
  • zibotentan and dapagliflozin
  • fluorine F18 DCFPyL
  • debamestrocel
  • givinostat
  • amubarvimab and romlusevimab(Pending FDA Approval)
  • sabizabulin(Pending FDA approval)
  • fexapotide(Phase 3 Clinical trial)
  • diatrizoic acid
  • drotaverine
  • diethyl phthalate
  • enclomiphene
  • epalrestat
  • ethamsylate
  • flupirtine
  • imidurea
  • sodium glycolate
  • feracrylum
  • ethacridine
  • furazolidone/metronidazole
  • ozagrel hydrochloride
  • leptazol
  • l-glutamic acid /vitamin B complex
  • etizolam
  • etizolam/propranolol
  • ethoheptazine citrate
  • etophylline and theophylline
  • etophylline
  • finger millet
  • drotaverine/mefenamic acid
  • dichloroxylenol
  • pneumococcal 7-valent vaccine
  • diclofenac and metaxalone
  • dipivefrin ophthalmic
  • enbucrilate
  • potassium citrate and citric acid
  • potassium gluconate
  • aclarubicin
  • alfuzosin/dutasteride
  • adrenochrome monosemicarbazone
  • selenium sulfide topical
  • sertaconazole
  • amorolfine cream
  • amsacrine
  • amylmetacresol
  • sulfonated phenolics in aqueous solution
  • technetium Tc-99m sulfur colloid
  • raltitrexed
  • romiplostim
  • acediasulfone
  • azulene
  • acebrophylline
  • clonazepam/escitalopram oxalate
  • allylestrenol
  • andrographolide
  • artemotil
  • technetium Tc-99m sestamibi
  • rubidium Rb-82
  • somapacitan
  • sodium sulfate, magnesium sulfate and potassium sulfate
  • almitrine
  • gramicidin
  • nikethamide
  • technetium Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate
  • betiatide
  • prilocaine/epinephrine
  • amlexanox
  • acetaminophen/salicylamide/phenyltoloxamine
  • neomycin topical
  • zilucoplan
  • antazoline and xylometazoline
  • toripalimab
  • iron isomaltoside
  • meningococcal A C Y and W polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine
  • meningococcal A C Y and W-135 diphtheria conjugate vaccine
  • tetradecyl Sulfuric Acid
  • benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin phosphate, adapalene
  • ethylephedrine
  • actarit
  • pyrantel tartrate
  • tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir DF
  • melitracen
  • amitriptylinoxide(Phase 4 Clinical Trials)
  • threonine
  • ditiocarb zinc
  • epicriptine
  • levallorphan
  • kinetin
  • laurocapram
  • pentagastrin
  • parthenolide
  • nicoboxil
  • protionamide
  • prulifloxacin
  • proscillaridin
  • tizanidine and rofecoxib
  • tolnaftate, gentamicin, chinoform and betamethasone valerate
  • pine bark extract
  • pipenzolate methylbromide
  • bephenium hydroxynaphthoate
  • niclosamide
  • pyrvinium
  • pipenzolate methylbromide/phenobarbitone
  • piracetam/ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine
  • benzyl benzoate/disulfiram
  • benzyl benzoate
  • loperamide/simethicone
  • piroctone olamine
  • sodium fusidate
  • piroxicam topical/capsaicin/menthol/methyl salicylate
  • sodium metabisulfite
  • sodium lauryl sulfate
  • taspoglutide
  • glyclopyramide
  • tolnaftate, gentamicin, iodochlorohydroxyquinoline, chlorocresol, betamethasone valerate
  • serratiopeptidase
  • sodium antimony gluconate
  • triamterene / benzthiazide
  • tribenoside / lidocaine
  • triclocarban
  • triprolidine/dextromethorphan  
  • vitamins/minerals/omega-3 Fatty acids
  • soyabean oil
  • sucralfate/oxethazaine
  • sucralfate/tinidazole/povidone iodine
  • sodium cromoglycate
  • aloe vera/liquid paraffin/white soft paraffin
  • aloe vera/jojoba oil/vitamin E
  • allantoin/triclosan/vitamin e/zinc oxide
  • alpha-Lipoic acid/minerals/multivitamins
  • alprazolam/paracetamol
  • alprazolam/melatonin
  • azithromycin/ambroxol
  • atorvastatin/clopidogrel/aspirin
  • aceclofenac, paracetamol and serratiopeptidase
  • alfacalcidol, vitamin B-complex, minerals and antioxidants
  • alpha- lipoic acid, vitamin b complex and vitamin c
  • alpha-galactosidase and simethicone
  • alpha-galactosidase, amylase, proteases, lipase and lactase
  • amikacin and cefepime
  • aminophylline, ephedrine and phenobarbitone
  • artesunate, sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine
  • finasteride/tamsulosin
  • flavoxate/ofloxacin
  • fenofibrate/metformin
  • lignocaine, hydrocortisone topical and allantoin
  • linoleic acid and sodium lactate
  • troxerutin
  • meclizine/nicotinic acid
  • mecobalamin/ginkgo Biloba
  • spirulina
  • loperamide and furazolidone
  • ketoconazole/cetrimide
  • ketoconazole/zinc pyrithione
  • lercanidipine/atenolol
  • levocetirizine/montelukast/ambroxol
  • levarterenol
  • levocetirizine/phenylpropanolamine 
  • indapamide/amlodipine
  • itopride/methyl polysiloxane
  • mebendazole/levamisole
  • eberconazole/mometasone
  • gliclazide/metformin/pioglitazone
  • fluconazole/tinidazole
  • haemocoagulase
  • halometasone
  • hesperidin
  • imipramine/chlordiazepoxide
  • idebenone / l-arginine / zinc sulphate/selenium/proanthocyanidin
  • mecobalamin and piracetam
  • mesterolone
  • mosapride and pantoprazole
  • atorvastatin, co enzyme q10, vitamin e, zinc, and selenium
  • azithromycin and benzalkonium chloride
  • beta carotene, vitamin c, vitamin e, minerals, lutein, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexenoic acid and vit b12
  • alpha-galactosidase
  • aloe vera gel/vitamin e/lactic acid
  • aloe vera gel/jojoba/vitamin e/glycerine
  • famotidine and domperidone
  • faropenem medoxomil
  • nedosiran
  • fluconazole/ornidazole/azithromycin
  • ebastine/montelukast
  • eberconazole
  • dienogest/estradiol valerate
  • ambroxol/salbutamol
  • benzoic acid/salicylic acid/ichthammol/ triamcinolone acetonide
  • desloratadine/ambroxol
  • dexibuprofen/paracetamol
  • atorvastatin/ramipril
  • diastase
  • diastase and simethicone
  • diazepam and propranolol
  • dexrabeprazole / domperidone
  • dexrabeprazole
  • dexketoprofen /paracetamol
  • beta carotene/vitamin C/minerals
  • aloe vera gel/urea
  • aloe vera gel/glycerine
  • alpha-lipoic acid/benfotiamine/chromium/folic acid/mecobalamin / vit b6
  • alprazolam/propranolol
  • alprazolam /sertraline
  • ibuprofen/dextropropoxyphene
  • ambroxol/cetirizine/phenylephrine/ guaiphenesin/menthol
  • dextropropoxyphene/dexchlorpheniramine maleate/bromhexine
  • promegestone
  • batroxobin
  • bencyclane
  • benfluorex
  • acetylpheneturide
  • abarelix
  • abetimus
  • naftidrofuryl
  • nalorphine
  • oxiracetam
  • letosteine
  • lafutidine
  • leuprorelin
  • levodropropizine
  • glutaral
  • losartan/ramipril
  • gallopamil
  • lanatoside c
  • lauromacrogol
  • gestodene
  • aceclofenac/methyl salicylate/menthol/linseed oil/capsaicin
  • aceclofenac/paracetamol/tizanidine
  • alginic acid/magaldrate/simethicone
  • aceclofenac/paracetamol
  • aceclofenac/rabeprazole
  • alginic acid
  • pantoprazole and domperidone
  • urokinase
  • rimiterol
  • olanzapine/fluoxetine
  • normethadone/hydroxyephedrine
  • myrtol
  • moxonidine
  • propylhexedrine
  • sodium hypochlorite solution
  • sodium chloride/sodium citrate
  • Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant [Adjuvanted])
  • Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)
  • aceclofenac and serratiopeptidase
  • levosulpiride
  • niaprazine
  • tromantadine
  • trimetazidine
  • vinburnine
  • mizoribine
  • molgramostim
  • mosapride
  • eugenol
  • tolperisone
  • etamsylate
  • etynodiol
  • mizolastine
  • metenolone
  • reproterol
  • rebamipide
  • mephenoxalone
  • metandienone
  • furosemide/spironolactone
  • hydroxycarbamide
  • tenonitrozole
  • fenoverine
  • fenquizone
  • tiapride
  • tibolone
  • furazolidone
  • furosemide & amiloride
  • fosfestrol
  • fluclorolone
  • flubendazole
  • tertatolol
  • tetracosactide
  • tetryzoline
  • tolciclate
  • trapidil
  • troxipide
  • temoporfin
  • telbivudine
  • teprenone
  • hexamidine
  • mebhydrolin
  • mepartricin
  • fencamfamin
  • medazepam
  • theodrenaline
  • thiamazole
  • thiocolchicoside
  • psilocybin
  • veralipride
  • pyritinol
  • opipramol
  • oprelvekin
  • betamethasone + gentamicin
  • betamethasone + neomycin
  • betamethasone + salicylic acid
  • oxedrine
  • bopindolol
  • orgotein (investigational)
  • oxaceprol
  • ormeloxifene
  • bevantolol
  • bifemelane
  • clebopride
  • demoxytocin
  • cicletanine
  • cefsulodin
  • chlortalidon
  • sisomicin
  • somatrem
  • carbazochrome
  • caroverine
  • cathine
  • ipriflavone
  • isepamicin
  • silymarin
  • simethicone
  • sermorelin
  • diloxanide
  • dimethindene
  • diosmin/hesperidin
  • calamine
  • canrenone
  • captodiame
  • imidapril
  • cefetamet
  • cefodizime
  • cefoperazone + sulbactam
  • ivermectin + albendazole
  • serrapeptase
  • bromisoval
  • beraprost
  • pridinol
  • proglumide
  • bamipine
  • barnidipine
  • bamifylline
  • benzbromarone
  • betamethasone/fusidic acid
  • para-chlorophenol
  • pantethine
  • nomifensine
  • pemoline
  • parnaparin
  • pentolinium
  • nialamide
  • novobiocin
  • nicergoline
  • octocrylene
  • octisalate
  • oftasceine
  • oxolamine
  • oxyphencyclimine
  • penfluridol
  • pentoxyverine
  • phenoxymethylpenicillin
  • picloxydine
  • pilsicainide hydrochloride
  • piperazine
  • pirarubicin
  • policresulen
  • prifinium bromide
  • prethcamide
  • pristinamycin
  • pirenzepine
  • piribedil
  • pimethixene
  • pargyline
  • phosphatidyl choline
  • phthalylsulfathiazole
  • phytomenadione
  • pranlukast
  • pinazepam
  • oxyphenonium
  • noxytiolin
  • periciazine
  • pethidine
  • phenindamine
  • histidine
  • isoleucine
  • proline
  • lauric acid
  • lymecycline
  • hypromellose
  • abiraterone acetate and niraparib
  • ichthammol
  • levamisole
  • naftazone
  • nefopam
  • oxprenolol
  • oxybuprocaine
  • elranatamab-bcmm
  • lapyrium
  • isoaminile
  • iotrolan
  • mazindol
  • masoprocol
  • lypressin
  • meradimate
  • molsidomine
  • monobenzone
  • mequinol/gluconolactone/ lactobionic acid/ arbutin
  • medifoxamine
  • mebutamate
  • metergoline
  • methantheline
  • methdilazine
  • metocurine
  • micronomicin
  • metaraminol
  • mephenesin
  • menadione
  • medrysone
  • metixene
  • levobetaxolol
  • guaiacol glycerol ether
  • eucalyptol
  • sodium tetradecyl sulfate
  • sugammadex
  • carbetocin
  • certoparin
  • chlorcyclizine/pseudoephedrine
  • cephapirin
  • indecainide
  • iobitridol
  • iomeprol
  • chlorphenesin
  • msud analog
  • msud maxamum
  • iceland moss
  • glutethimide
  • hexachlorophene
  • haloprogin
  • deferoxamine
  • ethchlorvynol
  • dexpanthenol topical
  • etilefrine
  • deslanoside
  • carbocromen
  • diazolidinylurea
  • dibenzepin
  • etofamide
  • guanoxan
  • halazepam
  • guanadrel sulfate
  • dapiprazole
  • soapwort
  • debrisoquine
  • l-tryptophan
  • chlormerodrin
  • chlorquinaldol
  • cetrimonium
  • carbocisteine
  • chlorcyclizine/codeine
  • technetium Tc-99m tetrofosmin
  • technetium Tc-99m disofenin
  • technetium Tc-99m gluceptate
  • technetium Tc-99m labeled red blood cells
  • amylmetacresol/dextromethorphan hydrobromide
  • anileridine phosphate
  • pyrethrins
  • pyrantel pamoate
  • quinagolide
  • spiramycin
  • standard hyperkalemic cardioplegia solution
  • technetium tc-99m mertiatide
  • technetium tc-99m medronate
  • bemotrizinol / bisoctrizole
  • benfotiamine
  • bemotrizinol + titanium dioxide + zinc oxide
  • technetium Tc-99m oxidronate
  • technetium Tc-99m pentetate
  • technetium Tc-99m pyrophosphate
  • benziodarone
  • octinoxate/bisoctrizole
  • bicisate dihydrochloride
  • technetium Tc-99m bicisate
  • norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol
  • norgestimate/ethinyl estradiol
  • ximelagatran (investigational)
  • xamoterol
  • trioxsalen
  • poly-urea urethane
  • rilmenidine
  • pemirolast
  • oxitriptan
  • beclomethasone, intranasal
  • thimerosal
  • camphor gel
  • camphor
  • mumps virus vaccine, live
  • rubella virus vaccine, live
  • aluminum chloride (dental)
  • alum irrigation
  • framycetin, phenylephrine, and gramicidin
  • ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir
  • olipudase alfa
  • etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol
  • mycophenolate
  • fluoroestradiol F 18
  • donor organ cardioplegia solution
  • fluciclovine F 18
  • fusidic acid (ophthalmic)
  • fusidic acid and hydrocortisone
  • framycetin, dexamethasone, and gramicidin
  • fludeoxyglucose F-18
  • fluorouracil/salicylic acid
  • indium In-111 oxyquinoline
  • indium In-111 pentetreotide
  • indium In-111 capromab pendetide
  • lusutrombopag
  • mitomycin (ophthalmic)
  • mifepristone and misoprostol
  • minoxidil (systemic)
  • methyl aminolevulinate (topical)
  • methyl folate, methylcobalamin, and acetylcysteine
  • ciclesonide/formoterol/tiotropium
  • nedocromil (Oral Inhalation)
  • batefenterol (Investigational)
  • neostigmine and glycopyrrolate
  • nepafenac ophthalmic
  • netupitant/palonosetron
  • meperidine and promethazine
  • mepivacaine and levonordefrin
  • maltodextrin
  • medical cannabis
  • medium chain triglycerides
  • mometasone/glycopyrrolate (glycopyrronium)/ indacaterol
  • moxifloxacin ophthalmic
  • neomycin/fluocinolone
  • nadroparin
  • iodine I-125 iothalamate
  • amikacin liposome (oral inhalation)
  • bupivacaine liposome
  • natamycin
  • lopinavir and ritonavir
  • lysine
  • macitentan and tadalafil
  • mitomycin pyelocalyceal
  • moclobemide
  • mometasone and indacaterol
  • efinaconazole
  • blue-green algae
  • indocyanine green
  • follitropin beta
  • lumasiran
  • glycerin/lidocaine
  • edrophonium/atropine
  • indigo carmine
  • lutropin alfa
  • instant glucose/intravenous dextrose
  • iobenguane I-123
  • ixekizumab
  • isosulfan blue dye
  • levofloxacin ophthalmic
  • levonorgestrel oral/ferrous bisglycinate/ ethinylestradiol
  • ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel transdermal
  • hydroquinone
  • hydroxypropyl methylcellulose
  • icodextrin
  • lipid emulsion (soybean, medium-chain triglyceride, olive, and fish oils; [SMOF])
  • iodinated I 125 albumin
  • iodinated I 131 albumin
  • lipid emulsion (plant oil-based)
  • levonorgestrel intrauterine
  • levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol
  • lactic acid and sodium-PCA
  • lactated Ringer solution
  • ketotifen (systemic)
  • lanolin
  • leuprolide and norethindrone
  • levodopa and benserazide
  • gonadorelin acetate
  • hemodialysis solutions
  • nirsevimab
  • gentian violet
  • gallium ga-68 dotatate
  • fusidic acid and betamethasone
  • gallium citrate Ga-67
  • gadopentetate dimeglumine
  • gadofosveset
  • follitropin delta
  • follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa
  • follitropin alfa
  • rocatinlimab
  • grass pollens allergen extract
  • flotufolastat F18
  • fluorescein ophthalmic
  • barium
  • balanced salt solution
  • air polymer type A intrauterine device
  • clodronate
  • bentoquatam
  • clobetasone
  • alfacalcidol
  • citric acid/glucono-delta-lactone/magnesium carbonate
  • benzoin
  • desirudin
  • immune globulin IV (IGIV)
  • dequalinium
  • pseudoephedrine/desloratadine
  • clofedanol
  • cyproterone and ethinyl estradiol
  • dextranomer and hyaluronic acid or derivatives
  • diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium
  • glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and Msm
  • squill
  • gotu kola
  • blessed thistle
  • bitter melon
  • apraclonidine
  • chlophedianol/dexbrompheniramine/pseudoephedrine
  • wild jujube
  • chitosan
  • cilazapril/hydrochlorothiazide
  • dexbrompheniramine and phenylephrine
  • diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid
  • dexchlorpheniramine and pseudoephedrine
  • lily of the valley
  • diflucortolone
  • corydalis
  • lemon balm
  • MSM
  • calcium polystyrene sulfonate
  • caprylidene
  • peppermint oil
  • efavirenz/lamivudine/tenofovir DF
  • emtricitabine/tenofovir DF /efavirenz
  • dutasteride/tamsulosin
  • milk thistle
  • centaury
  • horseweed
  • lycopus
  • agrimony
  • alfalfa
  • kava
  • cetrorelix
  • cetylpyridinium
  • chlophedianol and dexbrompheniramine
  • betahistine
  • choline C-11
  • boric acid vaginal suppository
  • aluminum acetate
  • aluminum chloride hexahydrate
  • 14-C urea breath test
  • absorbable collagen
  • valoctocogene roxaparvovec-rvox
  • amlodipine and celecoxib
  • aspirin and omeprazole
  • azilsartan and chlorthalidone
  • landiolol (Pending FDA approval)
  • isosorbide dinitrate/hydralazine
  • losartan/hydrochorothiazide
  • udenafil
  • dextromethorphan/quinidine
  • onasemnogene abeparvovec
  • orphenadrine/aspirin/caffeine
  • trace elements
  • sodium phenylbutyrate/ taurursodiol
  • fish oil triglycerides
  • infant formula
  • glutamine
  • chloroquine phosphate
  • afatinib
  • quinidine gluconate
  • methylergonovine
  • prothrombin complex concentrate, human
  • BCG intravesical live
  • capivasertib
  • cedazuridine
  • carbonyl iron
  • iron dextran complex
  • lovotibeglogene autotemcel (FDA Approval Pending)
  • sodium benzoate/sodium phenylacetate
  • mineral oil otic
  • zolmitriptan transdermal
  • midazolam intranasal
  • fosinopril/hydrochlorothiazide
  • caplacizumab
  • arginine
  • sodium phenylbutyrate
  • meloxicam/rizatriptan
  • manganese
  • acetaminophen/pamabrom/pyridoxine
  • varicella zoster immune globulin, human
  • amitriptyline/perphenazine
  • narsoplimab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • amlodipine/perindopril
  • imiglucerase
  • canagliflozin/metformin
  • tafamidis meglumine
  • somatrogon-ghla
  • glimepiride/rosiglitazone
  • becaplermin
  • lithium
  • loxapine inhaled
  • nicotine transdermal
  • tixagevimab and cilgavimab (Investigational)
  • muromonab CD3
  • ansuvimab
  • coal tar bath products
  • fibrin sealant
  • arimoclomol (FDA Approval Pending)
  • varenicline intranasal
  • aducanumab
  • oxycodone/naloxone
  • ritlecitinib
  • sodium polystyrene sulfonate
  • calcipotriene/betamethasone
  • calcium hydroxylapatite
  • cantharidin topical
  • doxepin cream
  • clocortolone
  • formaldehyde topical
  • sodium sulfide topical
  • collagenase
  • selegiline transdermal
  • foscarbidopa/foslevodopa (FDA approval pending)
  • saxagliptin/metformin
  • linagliptin/metformin
  • linzagolix (FDA approval pending)
  • efgartigimod/hyaluronidase SC
  • elamipretide (Pending FDA approval)
  • rozanolixizumab
  • diazoxide
  • glimepiride/pioglitazone
  • cipaglucosidase alfa
  • dihydroergotamine intranasal
  • delandistrogene moxeparvovec
  • beremagene geperpavec
  • hyaluronic acid and derivatives
  • hyaluronic acid, non-animal stabilized
  • eplontersen (FDA Approval Pending)
  • nitric oxide gas
  • sodium phenylbutyrate and taurursodiol
  • treprostinil SC
  • viltolarsen
  • albuterol/ipratropium
  • budesonide inhaled
  • budesonide rectal
  • palovarotene
  • sodium sulfate/potassium chloride/magnesium sulfate/polyethylene glycol
  • amino acids mixture
  • aminobenzoate potassium
  • elivaldogene autotemcel
  • naproxen and sumatriptan
  • sumatriptan intranasal
  • alglucerase
  • metformin/rosiglitazone
  • ertugliflozin/metformin
  • elosulfase alfa
  • calcium carbonate/magnesium hydroxide
  • starch suppository
  • abicipar pegol (FDA Approval Pending)
  • riboflavin 5′-phosphate ophthalmic
  • povidone ophthalmic
  • glycerin oropharyngeal
  • dimethicone topical
  • menthol topical, dimethicone topical
  • pramoxine topical, menthol topical and dimethicone topical
  • phosphorated carbohydrate
  • brilliant blue G ophthalmic
  • brolucizumab intravitreal
  • purified water, ophthalmic
  • hydroxyethyl cellulose ophthalmic
  • ranibizumab intravitreal implant
  • sodium chloride hypertonic, ophthalmic 
  • cetirizine ophthalmic
  • phentolamine ophthalmic
  • ganciclovir ophthalmic
  • triamcinolone intravitreal
  • ocriplasmin intravitreal
  • atoltivimab/maftivimab/odesivimab
  • pegcetacoplan intravitreal
  • triamcinolone acetonide extended-release injectable suspension
  • tobramycin/loteprednol ophthalmic
  • 2-octyl cyanoacrylate
  • vitamins A & D topical
  • diphenhydramine/allantoin topical
  • pyrethrins/piperonyl butoxide
  • lodoxamide ophthalmic
  • obeticholic acid
  • fluocinolone intravitreal implant
  • sincalide
  • linaclotide
  • nedocromil ophthalmic
  • cysteamine ophthalmic
  • avacincaptad pegol intravitreal
  • azelastine ophthalmic
  • bacitracin ophthalmic
  • propylene glycol ophthalmic
  • rimexolone ophthalmic
  • metoclopramide intranasal
  • mirikizumab
  • netarsudil ophthalmic
  • cenegermin
  • dexamethasone ophthalmic insert
  • prednisolone ophthalmic
  • phenylephrine and cocoa butter rectal
  • phenylephrine and witch hazel topical
  • phenylephrine, pramoxine, glycerin and petrolatum rectal
  • bisacodyl rectal
  • aluminum hydroxide/magnesium carbonate
  • aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide
  • hyoscyamine spray
  • methenamine/methylene blue/ hyoscyamine/ sodium phosphate monobasic/ phenyl salicylate
  • phenylephrine
  • chlorophyll
  • castor oil
  • cholic acid
  • phenol oropharyngeal
  • articaine/epinephrine
  • antithymocyte globulin equine
  • aluminum hydroxide/magnesium trisilicate
  • methenamine/hyoscyamine
  • hydrocortisone topical/pramoxine topical 
  • sodium fluoride topical
  • mesna
  • C1 esterase inhibitor recombinant
  • menthol and pectin
  • menthol oropharyngeal
  • pectin oropharyngeal
  • gepirone
  • Goldenseal
  • polyethylene glycol and electrolytes
  • polyethylene glycol/electrolytes/sodium ascorbate/ascorbic acid
  • brompheniramine/pseudoephedrine/dextromethorphan
  • brompheniramine phenylephrine
  • acetaminophen/doxylamine/phenylephrine
  • doxylamine/acetaminophen/pseudoephedrine/dextromethorphan
  • acetaminophen/doxylamine/dextromethorphan
  • acetaminophen/doxylamine/dextromethorphan/phenylephrine
  • eslicarbazepine
  • fluticasone and salmeterol
  • codeine, acetaminophen, butalbital and caffeine
  • codeine, chlorpheniramine and phenylephrine
  • iodine
  • povidone iodine
  • butalbital/aspirin/caffeine/codeine
  • polyethylene glycol 400/propylene glycol ophthalmic 
  • pegvaliase
  • amivantamab
  • iopamidol
  • codeine and pseudoephedrine
  • emtricitabine, rilpivirine, tenofovir DF
  • penicillin G aqueous
  • miconazole topical
  • miconazole vaginal
  • ciprofloxacin inhaled (Pending FDA approval)
  • ceftazidime/avibactam
  • ceftolozane/​tazobactam
  • aztreonam inhalation
  • amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate
  • miconazole oral
  • elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF
  • isavuconazonium sulfate
  • dapivirine intravaginal (FDA Approval Pending)
  • lamivudine/raltegravir
  • codeine/triprolidine/pseudoephedrine
  • cadexomer iodine
  • brompheniramine/pseudoephedrine
  • codeine/acetaminophen
  • codeine/guaifenesin
  • beclomethasone inhaled
  • epoetin beta/methoxy polyethylene glycol
  • voreloxin(Orphan Drug)
  • rociletinib
  • pitcher plant
  • phosphatidylserine
  • telotristat ethyl
  • copper CU 64 dotatate
  • urea topical
  • exenatide subdermal implant
  • asenapine transdermal
  • ethiodized oil
  • urea oral
  • miglustat
  • acalisib(Investigational)
  • acetophenazine
  • guggul
  • aceneuramic acid
  • mestranol/norethindrone
  • reishi
  • lactitol
  • vonoprazan fumarate
  • motherwort
  • silver nitrate
  • salicylic acid/sulfur shampoo
  • salicylic acid topical
  • ketorolac ophthalmic
  • ketoconazole topical
  • Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine
  • dibucaine topical ointment
  • ketorolac intranasal
  • ketorolac/phenylephrine ophthalmic
  • rotavirus oral vaccine, live
  • guarana
  • hops
  • krill oil
  • salicylic acid/coal tar shampoo
  • sufentanil SL
  • pancrelipase
  • passion flower
  • pepdite one plus
  • nivolumab and relatlimab
  • relatlimab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • benzalkonium chloride/benzocaine
  • ketotifen, drug-eluting contact lens
  • calcitriol topical
  • oxymetazoline topical
  • alclometasone topical
  • capsaicin topical
  • diclofenac/misoprostol
  • diclofenac ophthalmic
  • diclofenac topical
  • pramoxine/calamine topical
  • veverimer
  • tolazoline
  • olopatadine ophthalmic
  • lutetium lu 177-dota-tate
  • lutetium lu 177 vipivotide tetraxetan
  • strontium 89 chloride
  • interferon alfa n3
  • lutetium Lu 177- Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic acid-omburtamab (FDA Approval Pending)
  • samarium sm 153 lexidronam
  • cytomegalovirus immune globulin (CMV IG)
  • antithymocyte globulin rabbit
  • inolimomab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • olopatadine intranasal
  • olopatadine intranasal/​mometasone, intranasal
  • benzocaine/butamben/tetracaine topical
  • antipyrine/benzocaine/phenylephrine
  • dyclonine/menthol
  • surufatinib
  • fruquintinib
  • dostarlimab
  • hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG)
  • remestemcel-L
  • benzocaine/menthol oropharyngeal
  • interferon beta 1b
  • tetracaine/oxymetazoline intranasal
  • benzocaine oropharyngeal
  • benzalkonium chloride/menthol/petrolatum topical
  • inamrinone
  • alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor
  • potassium bicarbonate/potassium citrate
  • potassium phosphate/sodium acid phosphate
  • asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi recombinant
  • motixafortide
  • pegloticase
  • etesevimab
  • Rho(D) immune globulin
  • tetanus immune globulin (TIG)
  • reltecimod (pending FDA approval)
  • avasopasem
  • trimethoprim/polymyxin B ophthalmic
  • naphazoline ophthalmic
  • sulfacetamide topical
  • sirolimus intravitreal (pending FDA approval)
  • sirolimus protein bound
  • sirolimus topical
  • glycopyrronium tosylate topical
  • sofpironium
  • olmesartan, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide
  • dovitinib (Pending FDA Approval)
  • epinephrine inhaled
  • quizartinib (Pending FDA Approval)
  • ranibizumab intravitreal injection
  • sodium hyaluronate
  • bacitracin and lidocaine topical
  • brimonidine topical
  • benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin topical
  • talquetamab
  • betrixaban
  • acetaminophen/caffeine/pyrilamine
  • fentanyl transmucosal
  • bacitracin topical
  • buprenorphine,long-acting injection
  • buprenorphine buccal
  • nalmefene intranasal
  • sulbactam/durlobactam
  • metronidazole topical 
  • daratumumab/hyaluronidase
  • glofitamab
  • rituximab-hyaluronidase
  • drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol/levomefolate
  • loncastuximab tesirine
  • ingenol mebutate topical
  • momelotinib
  • trastuzumab/deruxtecan
  • trastuzumab/hyaluronidase
  • trastuzumab duocarmazine
  • lifileucel
  • umbralisib
  • eflornithine/sulindac
  • cytarabine/daunorubicin liposomal
  • doxorubicin liposomal
  • epcoritamab
  • lanadelumab  
  • esomeprazole/naproxen 
  • terbinafine topical
  • ravulizumab
  • clotrimazole topical
  • choline magnesium trisalicylate
  • tacrolimus ointment
  • mechlorethamine topical
  • donislecel
  • pozelimab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • human rabies immune globulin (HRIG)
  • melphalan flufenamide
  • sintilimab (Pending FDA Approval)
  • oportuzumab monatox (Pending FDA Approval)
  • sotorasib
  • irinotecan liposomal
  • sulfur topical
  • silver sulfadiazine
  • capsaicin transdermal
  • sutimlimab
  • tretinoin topical
  • acetaminophen rectal
  • menthol topical
  • naftifine
  • oatmeal, colloidal topical
  • oxiconazole
  • methylsalicylate/menthol topical
  • C1 inhibitor human
  • lifitegrast ophthalmic
  • prednisolone/sulfacetamide ophthalmic
  • mannitol inhalation
  • ofloxacin otic
  • petrolatum & mineral oil topical
  • clascoterone topical
  • gefapixant (Pending FDA Approval)
  • colesevelam
  • technetium Tc 99m succimer
  • nebivolol/valsartan
  • ciprofloxacin/fluocinolone acetonide, otic
  • finafloxacin otic
  • magnesium hydroxide/mineral oil
  • phenylephrine/mineral oil/petrolatum rectal
  • carbamide peroxide oral
  • atropine ophthalmic
  • sodium sulfacetamide/sulfur
  • sulfacetamide ophthalmic
  • lucinactant
  • benzonatate
  • besifloxacin ophthalmic
  • benzhydrocodone/acetaminophen
  • beractant
  • trimagnesium citrate anhydrous
  • vitamin b2
  • carbamide peroxide otic
  • mineral oil topical
  • ethyl alcohol intranasal
  • boric acid/alcohol otic
  • absorbable gelatin compressed sponge, USP
  • absorbable gelatin sponge, USP
  • vincristine liposomal
  • technetium Tc 99m albumin aggregated injection
  • metaproterenol
  • budesonide inhaled/formoterol/glycopyrrolate inhaled
  • epinephrine racemic
  • umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol inhaled
  • indacaterol, inhaled/glycopyrrolate inhaled
  • betaine  
  • laronidase 
  • estrogens esterified/methyltestosterone            
  • cerliponase alfa
  • ertugliflozin/sitagliptin
  • hawthorn
  • shepherd’s purse
  • thiamine
  • naphazoline/glycerin ophthalmic
  • oxymetazoline ophthalmic
  • dorzolamide
  • dexamethasone intraocular
  • dexamethasone/ciprofloxacin
  • dexamethasone ophthalmic
  • metipranolol ophthalmic
  • timolol ophthalmic
  • boron
  • fezolinetant
  • pegunigalsidase alfa-iwxj
  • biotin
  • pantothenic acid
  • silicon
  • sodium acid phosphate
  • hypochlorous acid topical
  • methenamine/sodium acid phosphate
  • aviptadil 
  • bremelanotide
  • glucagon intranasal
  • metformin and repaglinide
  • bai ji
  • pau d’arco
  • juzentaihoto
  • mistletoe
  • quercetin
  • rosemary
  • sheng di huang
  • chasteberry
  • maitake
  • grapefruit
  • lentinan
  • juniper
  • nettle
  • parsley
  • rose hips
  • tongkat ali
  • horny goat weed
  • damiana
  • yohimbe
  • insulin NPH
  • aprocitentan
  • noni Juice
  • sodium iodide I-131
  • green tea
  • sea cucumber
  • wheat germ extract
  • fenofibrate micronized 
  • rogisen
  • danshen
  • lutein
  • witch hazel
  • dextroamphetamine transdermal
  • amphetamine/dextroamphetamine
  • hoodia
  • kolanut
  • boswellia
  • opuntia ficus indica
  • lavender
  • nadh
  • tea tree oil
  • metformin/sitagliptin 
  • dapagliflozin/ metformin/saxagliptin  
  • antihemophilic factor recombinant
  • inclisiran
  • bempedoic acid/ezetimibe
  • volanesorsen  
  • omega 3 carboxylic acids
  • pericyazine
  • levomepromazine (methotrimeprazine)
  • betaxolol ophthalmic
  • respiratory syncytial virus vaccine, adjuvanted
  • phenylephrine hydrochloride and tropicamide ophthalmic
  • alirocumab
  • neomycin/polymyxin B/gramicidin ophthalmic
  • factor IX
  • gentamicin topical
  • ansofaxine (Pending FDA Approval)
  • zuranolone
  • factor IX, recombinant
  • factor IX complex
  • factor XIII A-subunit, recombinant
  • factor X, human
  • mesalamine rectal
  • etrasimod
  • anti-inhibitor coagulant complex
  • factor IX, recombinant/albumin fusion protein
  • fibrinogen, human
  • aminocaproic acid
  • metyrosine
  • nonoxynol-9 vaginal
  • progesterone intravaginal gel
  • ipecac syrup
  • botulinum antitoxin, heptavalent
  • pentetate calcium trisodium
  • crotalidae polyvalent immune FAB (ovine)
  • dehydrated alcohol injection 
  • gold sodium thiomalate (Discontinued)
  • lactic acid/citric acid/potassium bitartrate vaginal
  • von Willebrand factor, recombinant
  • luspatercept
  • digoxin immune FAB (Antidote)
  • crotalidae immune FAB (equine)
  • magnesium (Antidote)
  • pyridoxine (Antidote)
  • edetate calcium disodium
  • albumin IV
  • nitroglycerin sublingual
  • obiltoxaximab
  • anthrax immune globulin
  • nitroglycerin topical
  • dextrose
  • nesiritide
  • estradiol vaginal
  • bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens
  • botulism immune globulin iv
  • amoxicillin/omeprazole/rifabutin
  • synthetic human angiotensin II
  • nitroglycerin IV
  • nitroglycerin translingual
  • nitroprusside sodium
  • tetrahydrozoline/zinc sulfate/hypromellose ophthalmic
  • sodium citrate/citric acid
  • pemetrexate
  • methicillin
  • plasminogen 
  • acai
  • american ginseng
  • cordyceps
  • tramadol/acetaminophen
  • belladonna alkaloids/phenobarbital
  • erythromycin topical/benzoyl peroxide
  • glucosamine sulfate
  • panax ginseng (suppl/herb)
  • tolnaftate
  • sulopenem etzadroxil/probenecid
  • sulfur hexafluoride
  • sotrovimab
  • arbaclofen
  • rifampin/isoniazid
  • clindamycin /tretinoin topical
  • benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin topical
  • apremilast
  • antivenins, centuroides (scorpion)
  • bamlanivimab and etesevimab
  • vilobelimab
  • gadobenate
  • pentosan polysulfate sodium
  • methylsalicylate/menthol/camphor topical
  • antivenin, black widow spider
  • benzoyl peroxide and hydrocortisone
  • clindamycin topical
  • isometheptene, dichloralphenazone and acetaminophen
  • acetaminophen and phenyltoloxamine
  • erythromycin topical
  • erythromycin ophthalmic
  • alpha hydroxy acids, topical
  • buprenorphine transdermal
  • butalbital/acetaminophen/caffeine
  • buprenorphine/samidorphan
  • buprenorphine subdermal implant
  • celecoxib/tramadol
  • drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol
  • resorcinol/sulfur
  • eflornithine
  • rifampin/isoniazid/pyrazinamide
  • tofersen
  • devil’s claw
  • ticarcillin/clavulanate
  • atropine/pralidoxime
  • aprepitant
  • suramin
  • phenelzine 
  • artichoke
  • american dogwood
  • attapulgite
  • atlantic cedar
  • axalimogene filolisbac
  • sodium thiosulfate & sodium nitrite
  • ataluren
  • omidubicel-onlv
  • capsicum
  • ginger
  • cryoprecipitate
  • bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF
  • emtricitabine/tenofovir DF
  • fo-ti
  • siberian ginseng
  • granulocytes
  • zinc substituted heme C
  • zinc trihydroxide
  • ashwagandha 
  • cat’s claw
  • glandular products
  • SAMe
  • shark cartilage
  • altovis
  • feverfew
  • horse chestnut
  • magnesium aspartate
  • octacosanol
  • pleurisy root
  • star anise
  • butterbur
  • elderberry
  • licorice (Suppl/herb)
  • aconite
  • pentetate zinc trisodium
  • menthol topical/zinc oxide topical
  • corn-starch/kaolin/zinc oxide topical
  • 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-htp)
  • butcher’s broom
  • articulin
  • bearberry
  • goldenrod
  • progesterone, natural
  • black cohosh
  • wild yam
  • cranberry
  • dong quai
  • phytoestrogens
  • norethindrone
  • false Unicorn Root
  • raspberry Leaf
  • asafoetida
  • turmeric
  • dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
  • hyaluronan
  • aliskiren/amlodipine
  • octreotide (Antidote)
  • tranexamic acid injection
  • duocal
  • neocate infant formula
  • pediatric Eo28
  • aloe
  • red clover
  • propolis
  • androstenedione
  • heartsease
  • comfrey
  • bilberry
  • chamomile
  • eyebright
  • calendula
  • sage
  • yucca
  • polypody
  • odevixibat
  • vinpocetine
  • olanzapine/samidorphan
  • creatine
  • yerba mate
  • spesolimab
  • azficel-T
  • tiludronate
  • estetrol and drospirenone
  • pseudoephedrine/fexofenadine
  • lincomycin
  • neomycin oral
  • fluocinolone acetonide, otic
  • tretinoin/ hydroquinone/ fluocinolone
  • halobetasol topical
  • hydrocortisone/​iodoquinol
  • penicillin G procaine /penicillin G benzathine
  • hydrocortisone probutate topical
  • colistin/neomycin/hydrocortisone/thonzonium otic
  • ebola zaire vaccine
  • hepatitis a/​b vaccine
  • vibegron
  • lindane
  • nystatin topical
  • respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine
  • chikungunya vaccine, live
  • tenecteplase
  • reteplase
  • anthrax vaccine adsorbed, adjuvanted
  • meningococcal ABCWY pentavalent vaccine
  • eculizumab
  • cholestyramine
  • tinzaparin
  • taurolidine/​citrate/​heparin
  • protein C concentrate
  • antithrombin alfa
  • antithrombin III
  • multivitamins, vision
  • ibuprofen/​chlorpheniramine/​pseudoephedrine
  • acetaminophen/ibuprofen
  • ibuprofen/pseudoephedrine
  • paclitaxel protein-bound
  • acetic acid vaginal
  • acetic acid otic
  • hydrocodone/ ibuprofen
  • methyl salicylate / isopropanol/ citronellyl acetate/ citric acid
  • ibuprofen and phenylephrine
  • acetylcysteine (Antidote)
  • iron/​folic acid/​vitamin/​mineral
  • iobenguane I-131
  • dolutegravir/rilpivirine
  • chlorhexidine topical
  • chlorhexidine oral
  • thyroid desiccated
  • proparacaine ophthalmic
  • podophyllum resin
  • phendimetrazine
  • phenoxybenzamine
  • polidocanol
  • phentermine and topiramate
  • piflufolastat F18
  • piperacillin/tazobactam
  • prednisolone and gentamicin ophthalmic
  • promethazine and codeine
  • poractant alfa
  • protamine sulfate
  • aflibercept intravitreal
  • prednicarbate
  • promethazine/dextromethorphan
  • codeine, phenylephrine, and promethazine
  • potassium phosphate
  • glatiramer acetate
  • gentamicin (Ophthalmic)
  • leniolisib
  • rezafungin
  • fluorometholone
  • dalfampridine
  • hydrocortisone topical 
  • empagliflozin and linagliptin
  • triamcinolone topical
  • minocycline topical
  • minocycline dental
  • ketotifen ophthalmic
  • darunavir and cobicistat
  • lidocaine topical
  • neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin/lidocaine (OTC)
  • lidocaine/ hydrocortisone
  • lidocaine anesthetic
  • lidocaine ophthalmic
  • lidocaine/tetracaine
  • desonide
  • dabigatran
  • fexofenadine
  • fluoride
  • decitabine and cedazuridine
  • dasiglucagon
  • hydroxypropyl cellulose ophthalmic
  • epoetin alfa
  • ibritumomab tiuxetan
  • trimethobenzamide
  • dexamethasone/ tobramycin
  • tafasitamab
  • valacyclovir
  • mebendazole
  • levoleucovorin
  • flaxseed
  • germanium
  • glutathione
  • lycopene
  • pygeum
  • horseradish
  • ziv-aflibercept
  • micafungin
  • trofinetide
  • taliglucerase alfa
  • tildrakizumab
  • sulopenem (Pending FDA Approval)
  • thyrotropin alfa
  • birch
  • thrombin, topical
  • tivozanib
  • tafluprost
  • methohexital
  • urea and hydrocortisone
  • unoprostone ophthalmic
  • trihexyphenidyl
  • ezetimibe
  • evolocumab
  • trifluridine and tipiracil
  • methenamine
  • misoprostol
  • miltefosine
  • rimantadine
  • maralixibat
  • coenzyme Q10
  • chlorella
  • garlic
  • forskolin
  • zavegepant
  • menotropins
  • margetuximab
  • meprobamate
  • melarsoprol
  • evening primrose oil
  • lemongrass
  • molindone
  • fenugreek
  • phytosterols
  • red yeast rice
  • uridine triacetate
  • tropicamide
  • incobotulinumtoxinA
  • Grape Seed Extract
  • carbachol ophthalmic
  • cosyntropin
  • cyclopentolate and phenylephrine
  • carteolol ophthalmic
  • pentazocine/naloxone
  • pentazocine/acetaminophen
  • casimersen
  • carisoprodol, aspirin, and codeine
  • carisoprodol
  • carboprost tromethamine
  • flurandrenolide
  • brinzolamide/brimonidine
  • betamethasone topical
  • omaveloxolone
  • bardoxolone
  • allogeneic processed thymus tissue
  • fluocinolone topical
  • tacrolimus topical
  • ruxolitinib topical
  • pimecrolimus topical
  • sofosbuvir, velpatasvir and voxilaprevir
  • sofosbuvir/velpatasvir
  • mitotane
  • elbasvir/​grazoprevir
  • wheat dextrin
  • vanadium
  • iron/folic acid/vitamin/mineral
  • molybdenum
  • sparsentan
  • velmanase alfa-tycv
  • pegcetacoplan
  • ferrous sulfate
  • cyclosporine ophthalmic
  • ferric pyrophosphate
  • ammonium lactate
  • etelcalcetide
  • iodoquinol
  • sucroferric oxyhydroxide
theophylline + 

abiraterone

may enhance the concentration of serum when combined with theophylline derivatives

mibefradil

may enhance the concentration of serum when combined with theophylline derivatives

diacerein

may enhance the concentration of serum when combined with theophylline derivatives

tranylcypromine

may enhance the concentration of serum when combined with theophylline derivatives

anastrozole

may enhance the concentration of serum when combined with theophylline derivatives

viloxazine 

viloxazine: they may enhance the serum concentration of theophylline derivatives

isoprenaline

theophylline derivatives: they may increase the toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists

albuterol

theophylline derivatives: they may increase the toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists

indacaterol

theophylline derivatives: they may increase the toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists

levosalbutamol

theophylline derivatives: they may increase the toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists

olodaterol

theophylline derivatives: they may increase the toxic effect of Beta2-Agonists

propranolol

theophylline: they may decrease the bronchodilatory effect of Beta-Blockers

abediterol

theophylline: they may increase the hypertensive effect of sympathomimetics

noradrenaline

theophylline: they may increase the hypertensive effect of sympathomimetics

dextroamphetamine

theophylline: they may increase the hypertensive effect of sympathomimetics

tetrahydrozoline nasal

theophylline: they may increase the hypertensive effect of sympathomimetics

oxymetazoline

theophylline: they may increase the hypertensive effect of sympathomimetics

ascorbigen 

ascorbigen, when used in combination with theophylline, the efficacy of theophylline is lowered

norfloxacin

quinolones increase the concentration of theophylline derivatives in serum

osilodrostat 

may enhance the serum concentration of CYP3A4 inhibitors

norethynodrel 

the rate of excretion of norethynodrel may be decreased

Actions and spectrum: 

  • Bronchodilation: theophylline works by relaxing the smooth muscles in the airways, particularly in the bronchial tubes. This helps to widen the airways and improve airflow, making it easier for individuals with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and respiratory conditions to breathe. 
  • Anti-inflammatory effects: theophylline has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, which can help reduce airway inflammation and improve symptoms in conditions such as asthma. 
  • Central nervous system stimulation: theophylline acts as a central nervous system stimulant, which can increase alertness and decrease fatigue. 
  • Cardiovascular effects: theophylline has mild positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, meaning it can increase the force and rate of heart contractions. However, these effects are less pronounced compared to other medications used specifically for cardiovascular conditions. 

The spectrum of theophylline refers to the wide range of conditions. It is used to treat asthma, chronic bronchitis, and COPD. However, its use is becoming less common due to the availability of newer and more targeted medications with fewer side effects. theophylline may also be used in certain cases of apnea of prematurity, where it helps stimulate breathing in premature infants. 

Frequency not defined 

Peak serum concentration above 30 mcg/mL 

  • Seizures 
  • Acute myocardial infarction 
  • Urinary retention 

Peak serum concentration below 20 mcg/mL 

  • Diarrhea, vomiting, nausea 
  • Exfoliative dermatitis 
  • Tachycardia, flutter 
  • Difficulty urinating 
  • CNS excitement, insomnia, restlessness, headache, irritability, seizure 
  • Diuresis 
  • Skeletal muscle tremors 
  • Hypercalcemia 

Black Box Warning: 

theophylline carries a black box warning due to the potential for serious and potentially life-threatening side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias and seizures.

Close monitoring of blood levels is essential to maintain therapeutic levels while avoiding toxicity. Adverse effects can occur even within the therapeutic range, necessitating careful patient selection and monitoring. 

Contraindication/Caution: 

Contraindication: 

theophylline is contraindicated in individuals with a known hypersensitivity to the drug or its components. It should be avoided in patients with peptic ulcer disease, uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmias, severe hypotension, or recent myocardial infarction. Additionally, theophylline should not be used in patients with acute porphyria or during acute exacerbations of asthma or COPD.  

Caution: 

  • Cardiac disorders: theophylline may cause or worsen cardiac arrhythmias, so caution is needed in patients with heart conditions such as arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, or ischemic heart disease. 
  • Liver and kidney impairment: theophylline is primarily metabolized in liver and excreted by kidneys. Impaired liver or kidney function can affect the clearance of the drug, requiring dosage adjustments and careful monitoring. 
  • Peptic ulcer disease: theophylline can increase gastric acid secretion, potentially exacerbating peptic ulcer disease. 
  • Seizure disorders: theophylline can lower the seizure threshold, so caution is advised in patients with a history of seizures or epilepsy. 
  • Thyroid disorders: theophylline may affect thyroid hormone levels, so caution is needed in patients with thyroid disorders, including hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. 
  • Elderly patients: older adults may be more susceptible to the side effects of theophylline, including cardiac arrhythmias and central nervous system stimulation.

Comorbidities: 

  • Cardiovascular disease: theophylline can stimulate the heart and may cause or worsen cardiac arrhythmias. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions such as arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, or coronary artery disease require careful monitoring. 
  • Hypertension: theophylline can increase blood pressure. Patients with hypertension or uncontrolled high blood pressure should be monitored closely during theophylline therapy. 
  • Liver disease: theophylline is primarily metabolized in the liver, and liver impairment can affect its clearance. 
  • Kidney disease: theophylline is excreted by the kidneys, and impaired kidney function can lead to drug accumulation. Patients with kidney disease may require dosage adjustments and close monitoring of theophylline levels. 
  • Peptic ulcer disease: theophylline can increase gastric acid secretion and may aggravate peptic ulcer disease. Caution is needed in patients with peptic ulcers or gastrointestinal bleeding. 
  • Seizure disorders: theophylline can lower the seizure threshold and may increase the risk of seizures, especially at high doses. Patients with seizures or epilepsy should be closely monitored. 
  • Thyroid disorders: theophylline can affect thyroid hormone levels, and caution is needed in patients with thyroid disorders such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. 

Pregnancy consideration: US FDA pregnancy category: C 

Lactation: theophylline gets excreted into the human milk  

Pregnancy category: 

  • Category A: well-controlled and Satisfactory studies show no risk to the fetus in the first or later trimester. 
  • Category B: there was no evidence of risk to the fetus in animal studies, and there were not enough studies on pregnant women. 
  • Category C: there was evidence of risk of adverse effects in animal reproduction studies, and no adequate evidence in human studies must take care of potential risks in pregnant women.   
  • Category D: adequate data with sufficient evidence of human fetal risk from various platforms, but despite the potential risk, and used only in emergency cases for potential benefits. 
  • Category X: Drugs listed in this category outweigh the risks over benefits. Hence these categories of drugs need to be avoided by pregnant women. 
  • Category N: There is no data available for the drug under this category. 

Pharmacology: 

theophylline is a methylxanthine derivative with multiple pharmacological effects. It acts as a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, leading to increased intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). This results in bronchodilation, relaxation of smooth muscles, and anti-inflammatory effects in the respiratory system. 

theophylline also antagonizes adenosine receptors, which can lead to bronchodilation and increased cardiac contractility. It stimulates the central nervous system, promoting respiratory drive and reducing fatigue of the diaphragm. 

The pharmacological effects of theophylline include bronchodilation, increased mucociliary clearance, anti-inflammatory actions, and improved respiratory muscle strength.  

Pharmacodynamics: 

theophylline exerts its pharmacodynamic effects through multiple mechanisms of action. It acts as a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, preventing the breakdown of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). This results in bronchial smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation, improving airflow in the lungs. 

theophylline also has central nervous system stimulant effects. It stimulates the medullary respiratory center, promoting increased respiratory drive and reducing fatigue of the diaphragm. It inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators, such as histamine and leukotrienes, and reduces the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells, leading to decreased airway inflammation.  

Pharmacokinetics: 

Absorption 

theophylline is well-absorbed after oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations achieved within 1-2 hours. The absorption rate can be influenced by various factors, such as the formulation, food intake, and individual patient characteristics. 

Distribution 

Theophylline has a large volume of distribution, indicating its extensive distribution throughout body tissues. 

Metabolism 

theophylline undergoes hepatic metabolism primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, specifically the CYP1A2 isoenzyme. It is metabolized into several active metabolites, including 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 3-methylxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine. Genetic variations in CYP1A2 activity can affect theophylline metabolism. 

Elimination and excretion 

theophylline and its metabolites are primarily excreted in the urine. Renal clearance is an important factor in determining theophylline levels in the body. The elimination half-life of theophylline is influenced by factors such as age, liver function, and co-administration of other medications. 

Administration: 

  • Oral tablets or capsules: theophylline is commonly taken orally with water. It is important to follow dose instructions and take the medication with or after a meal to minimize stomach upset. 
  • Intravenous (IV) infusion: In certain situations, such as in critical care settings or when oral administration is not possible, theophylline can be administered intravenously. This requires a healthcare professional to administer the medication directly into a vein. 
  • Extended-release formulations: Extended-release formulations of theophylline are available, which provide a sustained release of the medication over a longer period. These formulations are typically taken once or twice daily, and it is important not to crush or chew these tablets as it may affect their release characteristics. 

Patient information leaflet 

Generic Name: theophylline 

Pronounced: [ thee-OFF-i-lin ]  

Why do we use theophylline? 

  • Asthma: theophylline is used as a bronchodilator to relieve and prevent symptoms of asthma, such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. 
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): theophylline can help improve breathing in individuals with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. 
  • Apnea of prematurity: theophylline may be used in premature infants to stimulate breathing and prevent apnea (pauses in breathing). 
  • Chronic lung diseases: theophylline may be prescribed for other chronic lung conditions, such as bronchiectasis and interstitial lung diseases. 
  • Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: theophylline can be used to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in individuals who experience asthma symptoms during physical activity. 
  • Pulmonary hypertension: theophylline may be used as an adjunct therapy for certain types of pulmonary hypertension.