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Dengue

Updated : February 14, 2024





Background

Dengue fever is a viral infection spread by mosquitos, mostly Aedes species, with Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti being its main carriers.
The causative agent of dengue belongs to the Flaviviridae family and consists of four distinct serotypes. Infection with one serotype typically confers lifelong immunity to that specific type but does not provide protection against the others.
The symptoms of dengue fever usually appear 4 to 10 days after a person is bitten by a mosquito that is infected. Common symptoms includes a sudden high temperature, acute headache, discomfort behind the eyes, pain in the muscles and joints, exhaustion, vomiting, nausea, and a distinct skin rash.
Dengue prevention involves controlling mosquito populations through environmental management, insect repellent usage, and wearing protective gear.

Epidemiology

Geographical Distribution:

  • It is endemic in subtropical and tropical regions worldwide.
  • The Aedes mosquitoes that transmit the virus thrive in warm and humid climates, contributing to the disease’s prevalence in these areas.

Vector Transmission:

  • The primary vectors for dengue virus transmission are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

Virus Serotypes:

  • Dengue virus has four distinct serotypes (DEN-1, 2, 3, and 4).

Epidemic Outbreaks:

  • Dengue outbreaks often occur in cyclical patterns, with periods of increased transmission followed by periods of lower activity.
  • Factors contributing to outbreaks include increased mosquito populations, environmental conditions favoring mosquito breeding, and changes in viral serotype prevalence.

Human Mobility and Globalization:

  • International travel and trade contribute to the global spread of dengue, as infected individuals can introduce the virus to new areas where Aedes mosquitoes are present.
  • Urbanization and population movements also play a role in the dissemination of the disease.

Climate and Environmental Factors:

  • Climate influences the distribution of Aedes mosquitoes and the dynamics of dengue transmission. Increased rainfall combined with warmer temperatures can foster an ideal environment for mosquito reproduction.
  • Environmental factors, such as water storage practices and urban planning, impact the abundance of mosquito breeding sites.

Anatomy

Pathophysiology

Virus Entry and Replication:

  • The bite of an infected mosquito, mainly an Aedes aegypti or an Aedes albopictus, can spread the disease to humans.
  • Dendritic cells in the skin close to the mosquito bite site are where the virus first enters the body and begins to multiply.

Viremia and Systemic Spread:

  • The virus enters the bloodstream, leading to viremia, the presence of the virus in the blood.
  • Dengue virus can then disseminate throughout the body, infecting various tissues and organs.

Innate Immune Response:

  • The host’s innate immune system responds to the viral infection, with cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells playing a role in early defense.
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on these cells recognize viral components and trigger immune responses.

Adaptive Immune Response:

  • Adaptive immune responses, involving both humoral (antibody-mediated) and cellular (T-cell-mediated) immunity, are activated.
  • B cells produce antibodies against the virus, while cytotoxic T cells target and destroy infected cells.

Antibody-Dependent Enhancement (ADE):

  • ADE is a phenomenon where non-neutralizing antibodies from a previous dengue infection enhance the entry of the virus into cells during a subsequent infection with a different dengue serotype.
  • ADE is thought to contribute to the increased severity of secondary dengue infections.

Cytokine Storm:

  • Severe dengue cases are associated with an exaggerated immune response, leading to a “cytokine storm.”
  • Increased vascular permeability is a result of higher amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and others.

Etiology

Causative Agent:

  • Four different serotypes—DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4—are used to categorize members of the Flaviviridae family.
  • Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes, with Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus being the main vectors.

Virus Transmission:

  • Aedes mosquitoes acquire the dengue virus by feeding on the blood of an infected human during the viremic phase of the illness.
  • The virus then replicates in the mosquito’s salivary glands, allowing it to be transmitted to humans during subsequent blood meals.

Human Host:

  • Humans are the primary reservoir for the dengue virus. The virus circulates within the human population, and mosquitoes become infected by biting individuals during the viremic period.

Mosquito Vectors:

  • The main mosquito species that transmit dengue is Aedes aegypti. These mosquitoes are well-adapted to urban environments and often breed in containers or artificial water-holding sites in and around human dwellings.
  • Even though it is less effective at transmitting the virus, Aedes albopictus might nevertheless contribute to its spread.

Virus Serotypes and Immunity:

  • Dengue viruses exist as four serotypes, and infection with one serotype typically provides lifelong immunity to that specific serotype.
  • However, because of antibody-dependent enhancement, recurrent infections with a distinct serotype can raise the risk of severe dengue (ADE).

Epidemiological Factors:

  • Geographic factors, such as the prevalence of Aedes mosquitoes and conducive climatic conditions, contribute to the global distribution of dengue.
  • Urbanization, population density, and human mobility also influence the epidemiology of dengue.

Seasonal Variation:

  • Dengue incidence often exhibits seasonal patterns, with increased transmission during warm and rainy seasons when mosquito populations are more abundant.

Genetics

Prognostic Factors

Clinical Symptoms and Severity:

  • The severity and progression of clinical symptoms, such as the intensity and duration of fever, can be indicative of the course of the disease.
  • The development of warning signs, such as severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, mucosal bleeding, and clinical fluid accumulation, may signal an increased risk of severe dengue.

Hematological Parameters:

  • Platelet Count: Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) is a common feature in dengue. Severe thrombocytopenia may indicate an increased risk of bleeding complications.
  • Hematocrit (HCT): Elevated hematocrit levels may suggest hemoconcentration, which can be an indicator of plasma leakage.

Age:

  • Compared to adults, children, particularly those under 15, are typically more vulnerable to severe dengue.

Comorbidities:

  • Severe dengue may be more likely to affect people with underlying medical disorders like diabetes or cardiovascular diseases.

Immune Status and Previous Infections:

  • The immune status of an individual, including whether they have had a previous dengue infection, can influence the severity of the disease.
  • Secondary infections with a different dengue serotype may enhance the risk of severe dengue due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE).

Laboratory Parameters:

  • Liver Enzymes: Higher levels of liver enzymes, such as alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), may indicate hepatic involvement.
  • Creatinine Levels: Abnormalities in kidney function, reflected in elevated creatinine levels, may signal renal impairment.

Clinical History

Clinical Presentation with Age Group:

  • Children: Children often present with non-specific symptoms, including high fever, headache, and rash. Severe cases in children may manifest as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS), characterized by bleeding tendencies, fluid accumulation, and shock.
  • Adults: Adults may experience classic dengue fever symptoms, such as severe headache, joint and muscle pain,sudden onset of high fever, and skin rash. Severe cases in adults can progress to DHF or DSS, with manifestations like bleeding, organ impairment, and shock.
  • Elderly: Elderly individuals may exhibit symptoms similar to adults, but they could be at a higher risk of severe complications due to age-related factors and potential comorbidities.

Associated Comorbidity or Activity:

  • Comorbidities: Individuals with underlying health conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, or immunosuppressive conditions, may experience more severe forms of dengue. Comorbidities can contribute to complications and worsen the overall prognosis.
  • Pregnancy: Dengue can cause problems for expectant mothers, including as a higher chance of premature birth and fetal discomfort. Management should consider the unique challenges and risks associated with dengue in pregnancy.
  • Immunocompromised Individuals: People with compromised immune systems may have a higher risk of severe dengue and may require careful monitoring and management.
  • Outdoor Activities: Individuals engaged in outdoor activities, especially in areas with high mosquito prevalence, may be at an increased risk of dengue infection. Mosquito avoidance measures, such as wearing protective clothing and using repellents, are important for individuals in such settings.

Acuity of Presentation:

  • Mild Dengue Fever: Mild cases may present with fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, nausea, and rash. These individuals often recover with supportive care, hydration, and symptomatic treatment.
  • Severe Dengue (DHF/DSS): Severe cases may present with warning signs, including abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, bleeding, and signs of plasma leakage. Progression to DHF/DSS involves vascular permeability, fluid leakage, thrombocytopenia, and potential shock.

Physical Examination

Vital Signs:

  • Monitor the patient’s vital signs, including temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure.
  • Frequent monitoring is crucial to detect any signs of deterioration or the progression to severe dengue.

General Appearance:

  • Assess the patient’s general appearance for signs of lethargy, weakness, or altered consciousness.
  • Evaluate the overall well-being of the individual to gauge the severity of the illness.

Skin Examination:

  • Look for signs of a skin rash, which is a common feature of dengue. The rash may be maculopapular and is often observed after the onset of fever.
  • Check for petechiae, ecchymosis, or other signs of bleeding tendencies.

Lymph Nodes:

  • Palpate lymph nodes, particularly in the neck, groin, and axillary regions, to assess for enlargement.

Oral Cavity and Mucous Membranes:

  • Inspect the oral cavity for signs of bleeding, such as gum bleeding or petechiae on the palate.
  • Check mucous membranes for moisture and signs of dehydration.

Cardiovascular Examination:

  • Assess the heart rate and rhythm.
  • Look for signs of poor perfusion, such as a weak or thready pulse, and evaluate for any features of shock in severe cases.

Age group

Associated comorbidity

Associated activity

Acuity of presentation

Differential Diagnoses

Other Mosquito-Borne Illnesses:

  • Malaria: Symptoms such as chills,fever, and headache can be similar to dengue, especially in regions where both diseases are endemic.
  • West Nile virus: Presents with fever, headache, and muscle aches, with a potential for neuroinvasive disease.

Bacterial Infections:

  • Leptospirosis: Fever, muscle pain, and headache are common symptoms, and severe cases may involve jaundice and kidney failure.
  • Typhoid fever: Presents with prolonged fever, abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms.

Rickettsial Infections:

  • Scrub typhus: Transmitted by chiggers, it can present with fever, headache, and muscle pain.
  • Spotted fever group rickettsioses: Depending on the region, various rickettsial infections may present with similar symptoms.

Viral Respiratory Infections:

  • Influenza: Fever, headache, and muscle aches are common symptoms, and severe cases may involve respiratory complications.
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV): In young children, RSV may present with fever, cough, and respiratory distress.

Autoimmune Diseases:

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Fever, joint pain, and rash are common symptoms, and the disease can mimic dengue in some cases.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: Joint pain and systemic symptoms can overlap with dengue symptoms.

Laboratory Studies

Imaging Studies

Procedures

Histologic Findings

Staging

Treatment Paradigm

Fluid Management:

  • Maintaining hydration is crucial, especially in cases of fever and vomiting.
  • Oral rehydration therapy is preferred for mild cases, while intravenous fluids may be necessary for patients with dehydration or severe symptoms.
  • Fluid balance should be closely monitored, and adjustments made based on clinical status, urine output, and hematocrit levels.

Fever Management:

  • Antipyretic medications, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol), can be used to reduce fever and alleviate discomfort.
  • Avoid non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin, as they can increase the risk of bleeding in dengue patients.

Pain Management:

  • Analgesics, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen (if not contraindicated), can help relieve headache, muscle, and joint pain associated with dengue fever.

Monitoring and Surveillance:

  • Close monitoring of vital signs, fluid balance, hematocrit levels, platelet count, and signs of bleeding or organ involvement is essential.
  • Serial assessments are necessary to detect warning signs of severe dengue and to guide treatment decisions.

Transfusion Support:

  • Patients who experience severe bleeding or thrombocytopenia may benefit from blood transfusions.
  • Patients who are actively bleeding or at danger of bleeding problems are typically the only ones eligible for platelet transfusions.

Critical Care Management:

  • Individuals in need of close observation in a hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) due to severe dengue fever, DHF, or DSS.
  • Supportive measures, such as oxygen therapy, vasopressor support, and mechanical ventilation, may be necessary for patients with shock or respiratory distress.

Prevention of Complications:

  • Early detection and management of warning signs are critical to prevent progression to severe dengue.
  • Patients with warning signs, such as persistent vomiting,abdominal pain, mucosal bleeding, or clinical fluid accumulation, require close observation and may need hospitalization.

Avoidance of NSAIDs and Aspirin:

  • They should be avoided due to the increased risk of bleeding and adverse effects on platelet function in dengue patients.

Patient Education:

  • Educate the patients and caregivers about the signs and symptoms of dengue fever, warning signs of severe dengue, and the importance of seeking medical care promptly.

Vector Control:

  • Implement vector control measures, such as mosquito control programs and community education, to reduce the risk of dengue transmission.

by Stage

by Modality

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Surgical Interventions

Hormone Therapy

Immunotherapy

Hyperthermia

Photodynamic Therapy

Stem Cell Transplant

Targeted Therapy

Palliative Care

Use of a non-pharmacological approach for treating Dengue

Hydration and Fluid Intake:

  • Encourage oral rehydration with electrolyte solutions to prevent dehydration in milder cases.
  • In severe cases, intravenous fluid administration may be necessary to maintain fluid balance and prevent complications related to plasma leakage.

Rest and Adequate Sleep:

  • Emphasize the importance of rest and sufficient sleep to support the body’s immune response and aid in recovery.

Cooling Measures:

  • Use tepid sponging or apply cool compresses to help alleviate fever and provide comfort. Avoid cold water, as it can cause shivering and may lead to increased metabolism.

Avoidance of NSAIDs and Aspirin:

  • Emphasize the avoidance of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin due to their potential to increase the risk of bleeding in dengue patients.

Pain Management:

  • Utilize non-pharmacological methods for pain relief, such as warm compresses or soothing baths, to help alleviate muscle and joint pain.

Dietary Recommendations:

  • Encourage a well-balanced diet with a focus on easily digestible foods to provide adequate nutrition.
  • Maintain hydration through the consumption of fluids, including water, oral rehydration solutions, and clear soups.

Patient Education:

  • Provide education to patients and caregivers on the signs and symptoms of dengue, the importance of seeking medical attention promptly, and ways to prevent the spread of the virus through mosquito control measures.

Mosquito Avoidance:

  • Emphasize the importance of avoiding mosquito bites to prevent further transmission.
  • Encourage the use of mosquito nets, repellents, and protective clothing, particularly during peak mosquito activity times.

Emotional Support:

  • Offer emotional support to patients, as the anxiety and stress associated with the illness can impact overall well-being.
  • Ensure clear communication about the expected course of the illness and the rationale behind specific interventions.

Vector Control Measures:

  • Collaborate with public health initiatives to implement vector control measures in the community to reduce the overall risk of dengue transmission.

Role of Analgesics in the treatment of Dengue

Analgesics play a crucial role in the treatment of dengue fever by providing relief from pain and discomfort, particularly the severe muscle and joint pain (myalgia and arthralgia) that are common symptoms of the disease. Dengue fever is often accompanied by debilitating symptoms such as severe headache, muscle pain (myalgia), and joint pain (arthralgia). Analgesics help relieve pain and discomfort, improving the patient’s overall well-being and quality of life during the acute phase of the illness.

Some analgesics, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) and ibuprofen, have antipyretic properties and can help reduce fever associated with dengue fever. Fever reduction can improve patient comfort and alleviate symptoms such as sweating and chills.

  • Acetaminophen (Paracetamol): Acetaminophen is commonly used for pain relief and fever reduction in dengue patients. It is generally considered safe and does not increase the risk of bleeding.
  • Ibuprofen (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug – NSAID): Ibuprofen can be effective for pain relief and fever reduction in dengue patients. However, it should be used with caution, especially in cases of thrombocytopenia, as NSAIDs can increase the risk of bleeding.
  • Naproxen (NSAID): Similar to ibuprofen, naproxen may be used cautiously for pain relief in dengue patients. As with other NSAIDs, it should be used judiciously to minimize the risk of bleeding.
  • Diclofenac (NSAID): Diclofenac is another NSAID that may be used for pain relief in dengue patients. It should be used with caution and avoided in patients with a history of gastrointestinal bleeding or other bleeding disorders.

Role of Volume expanders in the treatment of Dengue

Volume expanders, also known as intravenous fluids, play a crucial role in the management of dengue fever, particularly in cases where patients develop plasma leakage or vascular permeability, which can lead to hypovolemia and shock. The use of volume expanders aims to restore intravascular volume, maintain adequate tissue perfusion, and prevent complications associated with severe dengue, such as dengue shock syndrome (DSS).

Fluid Resuscitation:

  • Intravenous fluids are administered to patients with dengue fever to replace fluid loss due to fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and plasma leakage.
  • Fluid resuscitation helps maintain adequate circulating volume, preventing hypovolemia and shock, which are common complications of severe dengue.

Correction of Hypovolemia:

  • Volume expanders are used to correct hypovolemia and maintain hemodynamic stability in patients with severe dengue.
  • Adequate fluid replacement is essential to prevent organ hypoperfusion and multi-organ failure.

Types of Volume Expanders:

Crystalloids: Crystalloid solutions, such as normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and Ringer’s lactate, are commonly used as volume expanders in the treatment of dengue fever.

  • Normal saline is isotonic and helps restore intravascular volume rapidly.
  • Ringer’s lactate contains electrolytes that closely mimic plasma composition, making it suitable for fluid resuscitation and correction of metabolic acidosis.

Colloids: Colloid solutions, such as albumin and hydroxyethyl starch (HES), may be considered in severe cases of dengue with significant fluid loss and hypovolemia.

  • Albumin is a natural colloid that helps maintain oncotic pressure and expand plasma volume.
  • HES solutions are synthetic colloids that remain in the intravascular space longer than crystalloids, providing sustained volume expansion.

Fluid replacement protocols in dengue fever aim to prevent overhydration while ensuring adequate tissue perfusion and preventing complications such as fluid overload. Monitoring of vital signs, urine output, hematocrit levels, and clinical status is essential for assessing fluid responsiveness and guiding fluid therapy.

  • Normal Saline (0.9% NaCl): Normal saline is an isotonic crystalloid solution consisting of 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolved in water. Isotonic solutions have an osmolarity similar to that of human plasma. Used for fluid resuscitation, maintenance fluids, and rehydration. It is effective in restoring intravascular volume and is often the initial choice in emergencies.
  • Ringer’s Lactate: Ringer’s lactate is a crystalloid solution containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and sodium lactate in water. Isotonic solution with an osmolarity similar to plasma. Used for fluid resuscitation, particularly in cases of dehydration, surgery, trauma, and burns. It also provides some buffering capacity, aiding in the correction of metabolic acidosis.
  • Albumin (Human Serum Albumin): Albumin is a colloid solution derived from human plasma, consisting mainly of albumin protein. Colloid solutions have a higher osmotic pressure compared to crystalloids. Used for intravascular volume expansion, particularly in cases of severe hypovolemia, hypoalbuminemia, and conditions requiring oncotic support. It is often considered in cases of dengue shock syndrome.
  • Hydroxyethyl Starch (HES): Hydroxyethyl starch is a synthetic colloid solution made from starch molecules modified with hydroxyethyl groups. Colloid solutions with higher osmotic pressure. Used for volume expansion in cases of hypovolemia, shock, and situations requiring prolonged intravascular volume support. It can remain in the bloodstream for a more extended period than crystalloids.

Role of live viral vaccines in the treatment of Dengue

Live viral vaccines play a crucial role in preventing dengue infection rather than treating the disease once it has occurred. There are licensed vaccines designed to prevent dengue fever caused by the four dengue virus serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4). These vaccines are live attenuated vaccines, meaning they contain weakened forms of the virus that are unable to cause severe illness but can stimulate an immune response.

Dengue Vaccine: The vaccine is used for the dengue disease prevention which is caused by dengue virus serotypes 4,3,2 and 1. It is specifically approved for individuals aged 9-16 years with laboratory-confirmed previous dengue infection.

The vaccine is only approved for those who have previously been infected with any dengue virus serotype, or for people who do not know this information. It is stated that those who have never had dengue fever before are more likely to contract the virus after receiving a vaccination. Immunization involves a series of three subcutaneous (SC) injections administered 6 months apart. The schedule aims to establish a durable immune response against dengue virus serotypes.

Use of Intervention with a procedure in treating Dengue

Interventional procedures are not typically used as primary treatments for dengue fever. Dengue fever is primarily managed with supportive care, including hydration, fever reduction, and monitoring for complications.

Fluid Resuscitation:

  • In cases of severe dengue with plasma leakage leading to hypovolemia and shock, aggressive fluid resuscitation may be necessary.
  • Intravenous fluid therapy, often with crystalloid or colloid solutions, aims to restore intravascular volume and maintain hemodynamic stability.

Blood Transfusion:

  • Severe cases of dengue shock syndrome (DSS) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) may result in significant bleeding and hemorrhage.
  • Blood transfusion, including packed red blood cells and platelet transfusion, may be indicated to replace lost blood components and improve clotting function.

Plasma Exchange (Plasmapheresis):

  • In rare cases of severe dengue with profound shock or multi-organ dysfunction, plasma exchange may be considered to remove circulating antibodies and inflammatory mediators.
  • Plasmapheresis aims to modulate the immune response and reduce systemic inflammation.

Hemodialysis:

  • Acute kidney injury (AKI) may occur in severe cases of dengue, especially those complicated by shock or multi-organ dysfunction.
  • Hemodialysis may be required for patients with severe AKI to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance and remove waste products.

Surgical Intervention:

  • In cases of severe gastrointestinal bleeding or intra-abdominal hemorrhage secondary to dengue, surgical intervention such as exploratory laparotomy may be necessary to control bleeding and repair damaged blood vessels or organs.

Use of phases in managing Dengue

Febrile Phase:

  • The febrile phase marks the onset of symptoms and typically lasts for the first 2-7 days of illness.
  • Symptoms during this phase include sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, retro-orbital pain (pain behind the eyes), muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and rash.
  • Management during the febrile phase focuses on symptomatic relief and supportive care, including:
  • Fever reduction with antipyretic medications such as acetaminophen (paracetamol).
  • Hydration with oral rehydration solutions to prevent dehydration, especially in cases of fever, vomiting, and diarrhea.
  • Rest and monitoring for signs of progression to severe dengue.

Critical Phase:

  • The critical phase typically occurs around the time of defervescence (when the fever subsides) and is characterized by plasma leakage, hemorrhage, and organ dysfunction.
  • It usually begins around day 3-7 of illness and may last for 24-48 hours.
  • Warning signs of abdominal pain, persistent vomiting,severe dengue, mucosal bleeding, lethargy, restlessness, and rapid deterioration in clinical status, may manifest during this phase.
  • Management during the critical phase involves:
  • Close monitoring for warning signs and symptoms of severe dengue.
  • Intravenous fluid treatment to avoid hypovolemic shock and preserve fluid balance.
  • Transfusion support with packed red blood cells or platelets in cases of severe hemorrhage or thrombocytopenia.

Intensive care management for patients with severe dengue, including those with dengue shock syndrome (DSS) or severe bleeding complications.

Recovery Phase:

The recovery phase follows the critical phase and is characterized by resolution of symptoms and gradual improvement in clinical status.

Patients may experience fatigue, weakness, and residual symptoms such as joint pain and malaise during this phase.

  • Management during the recovery phase focuses on:
  • Continued monitoring for complications and signs of relapse.
  • Supportive care to promote recovery, including adequate rest, nutrition, and hydration.
  • Follow-up assessments to ensure complete resolution of symptoms and to monitor for long-term complications.

Medication

 

butantan–dengue vaccine 

It is indicated for Immunization against Dengue
This vaccine is designed to fight all four types of the dengue virus (DENV) It uses a live, weakened, four-part approach to boost its effectiveness and ability to stimulate an immune response The immune system is trained by the vaccine to identify and combat DENV It accomplishes this by displaying DENV-1, -3, and -4 components in addition to a DENV-2/-4 mix



Dose Adjustments

Limited data is available

 

dengue vaccine 

The vaccine is recommended to prevent dengue caused by virus serotypes 1, 3, 2, and 4 in individuals aged 9-16 with a confirmed history of past dengue infection in endemic areas

Administered in a 3-dose series, each 0.5 mL subcutaneous dose is given at 6-month intervals
It is crucial to note that the vaccine is not approved for those without a confirmed previous dengue infection
Individuals lacking prior infection may be at an elevated risk of severe dengue if vaccinated and subsequently infected
Confirming prior dengue infection through medical records or serological testing before vaccination is advised

Furthermore, the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine have not been established for individuals from nonendemic areas traveling to regions where dengue is prevalent



butantan–dengue vaccine 

It is indicated for Immunization against Dengue
This vaccine is designed to fight all four types of the dengue virus (DENV) It uses a live, weakened, four-part approach to boost its effectiveness and ability to stimulate an immune response The immune system is trained by the vaccine to identify and combat DENV It accomplishes this by displaying DENV-1, -3, and -4 components in addition to a DENV-2/-4 mix Safety and efficacy are not seen in pediatrics < 2 years



Dose Adjustments

Limited data is available

 

Media Gallary

Dengue

Updated : February 14, 2024




Dengue fever is a viral infection spread by mosquitos, mostly Aedes species, with Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti being its main carriers.
The causative agent of dengue belongs to the Flaviviridae family and consists of four distinct serotypes. Infection with one serotype typically confers lifelong immunity to that specific type but does not provide protection against the others.
The symptoms of dengue fever usually appear 4 to 10 days after a person is bitten by a mosquito that is infected. Common symptoms includes a sudden high temperature, acute headache, discomfort behind the eyes, pain in the muscles and joints, exhaustion, vomiting, nausea, and a distinct skin rash.
Dengue prevention involves controlling mosquito populations through environmental management, insect repellent usage, and wearing protective gear.

Geographical Distribution:

  • It is endemic in subtropical and tropical regions worldwide.
  • The Aedes mosquitoes that transmit the virus thrive in warm and humid climates, contributing to the disease’s prevalence in these areas.

Vector Transmission:

  • The primary vectors for dengue virus transmission are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

Virus Serotypes:

  • Dengue virus has four distinct serotypes (DEN-1, 2, 3, and 4).

Epidemic Outbreaks:

  • Dengue outbreaks often occur in cyclical patterns, with periods of increased transmission followed by periods of lower activity.
  • Factors contributing to outbreaks include increased mosquito populations, environmental conditions favoring mosquito breeding, and changes in viral serotype prevalence.

Human Mobility and Globalization:

  • International travel and trade contribute to the global spread of dengue, as infected individuals can introduce the virus to new areas where Aedes mosquitoes are present.
  • Urbanization and population movements also play a role in the dissemination of the disease.

Climate and Environmental Factors:

  • Climate influences the distribution of Aedes mosquitoes and the dynamics of dengue transmission. Increased rainfall combined with warmer temperatures can foster an ideal environment for mosquito reproduction.
  • Environmental factors, such as water storage practices and urban planning, impact the abundance of mosquito breeding sites.

Virus Entry and Replication:

  • The bite of an infected mosquito, mainly an Aedes aegypti or an Aedes albopictus, can spread the disease to humans.
  • Dendritic cells in the skin close to the mosquito bite site are where the virus first enters the body and begins to multiply.

Viremia and Systemic Spread:

  • The virus enters the bloodstream, leading to viremia, the presence of the virus in the blood.
  • Dengue virus can then disseminate throughout the body, infecting various tissues and organs.

Innate Immune Response:

  • The host’s innate immune system responds to the viral infection, with cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells playing a role in early defense.
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on these cells recognize viral components and trigger immune responses.

Adaptive Immune Response:

  • Adaptive immune responses, involving both humoral (antibody-mediated) and cellular (T-cell-mediated) immunity, are activated.
  • B cells produce antibodies against the virus, while cytotoxic T cells target and destroy infected cells.

Antibody-Dependent Enhancement (ADE):

  • ADE is a phenomenon where non-neutralizing antibodies from a previous dengue infection enhance the entry of the virus into cells during a subsequent infection with a different dengue serotype.
  • ADE is thought to contribute to the increased severity of secondary dengue infections.

Cytokine Storm:

  • Severe dengue cases are associated with an exaggerated immune response, leading to a “cytokine storm.”
  • Increased vascular permeability is a result of higher amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and others.

Causative Agent:

  • Four different serotypes—DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4—are used to categorize members of the Flaviviridae family.
  • Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes, with Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus being the main vectors.

Virus Transmission:

  • Aedes mosquitoes acquire the dengue virus by feeding on the blood of an infected human during the viremic phase of the illness.
  • The virus then replicates in the mosquito’s salivary glands, allowing it to be transmitted to humans during subsequent blood meals.

Human Host:

  • Humans are the primary reservoir for the dengue virus. The virus circulates within the human population, and mosquitoes become infected by biting individuals during the viremic period.

Mosquito Vectors:

  • The main mosquito species that transmit dengue is Aedes aegypti. These mosquitoes are well-adapted to urban environments and often breed in containers or artificial water-holding sites in and around human dwellings.
  • Even though it is less effective at transmitting the virus, Aedes albopictus might nevertheless contribute to its spread.

Virus Serotypes and Immunity:

  • Dengue viruses exist as four serotypes, and infection with one serotype typically provides lifelong immunity to that specific serotype.
  • However, because of antibody-dependent enhancement, recurrent infections with a distinct serotype can raise the risk of severe dengue (ADE).

Epidemiological Factors:

  • Geographic factors, such as the prevalence of Aedes mosquitoes and conducive climatic conditions, contribute to the global distribution of dengue.
  • Urbanization, population density, and human mobility also influence the epidemiology of dengue.

Seasonal Variation:

  • Dengue incidence often exhibits seasonal patterns, with increased transmission during warm and rainy seasons when mosquito populations are more abundant.

Clinical Symptoms and Severity:

  • The severity and progression of clinical symptoms, such as the intensity and duration of fever, can be indicative of the course of the disease.
  • The development of warning signs, such as severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, mucosal bleeding, and clinical fluid accumulation, may signal an increased risk of severe dengue.

Hematological Parameters:

  • Platelet Count: Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) is a common feature in dengue. Severe thrombocytopenia may indicate an increased risk of bleeding complications.
  • Hematocrit (HCT): Elevated hematocrit levels may suggest hemoconcentration, which can be an indicator of plasma leakage.

Age:

  • Compared to adults, children, particularly those under 15, are typically more vulnerable to severe dengue.

Comorbidities:

  • Severe dengue may be more likely to affect people with underlying medical disorders like diabetes or cardiovascular diseases.

Immune Status and Previous Infections:

  • The immune status of an individual, including whether they have had a previous dengue infection, can influence the severity of the disease.
  • Secondary infections with a different dengue serotype may enhance the risk of severe dengue due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE).

Laboratory Parameters:

  • Liver Enzymes: Higher levels of liver enzymes, such as alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), may indicate hepatic involvement.
  • Creatinine Levels: Abnormalities in kidney function, reflected in elevated creatinine levels, may signal renal impairment.

Clinical Presentation with Age Group:

  • Children: Children often present with non-specific symptoms, including high fever, headache, and rash. Severe cases in children may manifest as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS), characterized by bleeding tendencies, fluid accumulation, and shock.
  • Adults: Adults may experience classic dengue fever symptoms, such as severe headache, joint and muscle pain,sudden onset of high fever, and skin rash. Severe cases in adults can progress to DHF or DSS, with manifestations like bleeding, organ impairment, and shock.
  • Elderly: Elderly individuals may exhibit symptoms similar to adults, but they could be at a higher risk of severe complications due to age-related factors and potential comorbidities.

Associated Comorbidity or Activity:

  • Comorbidities: Individuals with underlying health conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, or immunosuppressive conditions, may experience more severe forms of dengue. Comorbidities can contribute to complications and worsen the overall prognosis.
  • Pregnancy: Dengue can cause problems for expectant mothers, including as a higher chance of premature birth and fetal discomfort. Management should consider the unique challenges and risks associated with dengue in pregnancy.
  • Immunocompromised Individuals: People with compromised immune systems may have a higher risk of severe dengue and may require careful monitoring and management.
  • Outdoor Activities: Individuals engaged in outdoor activities, especially in areas with high mosquito prevalence, may be at an increased risk of dengue infection. Mosquito avoidance measures, such as wearing protective clothing and using repellents, are important for individuals in such settings.

Acuity of Presentation:

  • Mild Dengue Fever: Mild cases may present with fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, nausea, and rash. These individuals often recover with supportive care, hydration, and symptomatic treatment.
  • Severe Dengue (DHF/DSS): Severe cases may present with warning signs, including abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, bleeding, and signs of plasma leakage. Progression to DHF/DSS involves vascular permeability, fluid leakage, thrombocytopenia, and potential shock.

Vital Signs:

  • Monitor the patient’s vital signs, including temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure.
  • Frequent monitoring is crucial to detect any signs of deterioration or the progression to severe dengue.

General Appearance:

  • Assess the patient’s general appearance for signs of lethargy, weakness, or altered consciousness.
  • Evaluate the overall well-being of the individual to gauge the severity of the illness.

Skin Examination:

  • Look for signs of a skin rash, which is a common feature of dengue. The rash may be maculopapular and is often observed after the onset of fever.
  • Check for petechiae, ecchymosis, or other signs of bleeding tendencies.

Lymph Nodes:

  • Palpate lymph nodes, particularly in the neck, groin, and axillary regions, to assess for enlargement.

Oral Cavity and Mucous Membranes:

  • Inspect the oral cavity for signs of bleeding, such as gum bleeding or petechiae on the palate.
  • Check mucous membranes for moisture and signs of dehydration.

Cardiovascular Examination:

  • Assess the heart rate and rhythm.
  • Look for signs of poor perfusion, such as a weak or thready pulse, and evaluate for any features of shock in severe cases.

Other Mosquito-Borne Illnesses:

  • Malaria: Symptoms such as chills,fever, and headache can be similar to dengue, especially in regions where both diseases are endemic.
  • West Nile virus: Presents with fever, headache, and muscle aches, with a potential for neuroinvasive disease.

Bacterial Infections:

  • Leptospirosis: Fever, muscle pain, and headache are common symptoms, and severe cases may involve jaundice and kidney failure.
  • Typhoid fever: Presents with prolonged fever, abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms.

Rickettsial Infections:

  • Scrub typhus: Transmitted by chiggers, it can present with fever, headache, and muscle pain.
  • Spotted fever group rickettsioses: Depending on the region, various rickettsial infections may present with similar symptoms.

Viral Respiratory Infections:

  • Influenza: Fever, headache, and muscle aches are common symptoms, and severe cases may involve respiratory complications.
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV): In young children, RSV may present with fever, cough, and respiratory distress.

Autoimmune Diseases:

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Fever, joint pain, and rash are common symptoms, and the disease can mimic dengue in some cases.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: Joint pain and systemic symptoms can overlap with dengue symptoms.

Fluid Management:

  • Maintaining hydration is crucial, especially in cases of fever and vomiting.
  • Oral rehydration therapy is preferred for mild cases, while intravenous fluids may be necessary for patients with dehydration or severe symptoms.
  • Fluid balance should be closely monitored, and adjustments made based on clinical status, urine output, and hematocrit levels.

Fever Management:

  • Antipyretic medications, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol), can be used to reduce fever and alleviate discomfort.
  • Avoid non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin, as they can increase the risk of bleeding in dengue patients.

Pain Management:

  • Analgesics, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen (if not contraindicated), can help relieve headache, muscle, and joint pain associated with dengue fever.

Monitoring and Surveillance:

  • Close monitoring of vital signs, fluid balance, hematocrit levels, platelet count, and signs of bleeding or organ involvement is essential.
  • Serial assessments are necessary to detect warning signs of severe dengue and to guide treatment decisions.

Transfusion Support:

  • Patients who experience severe bleeding or thrombocytopenia may benefit from blood transfusions.
  • Patients who are actively bleeding or at danger of bleeding problems are typically the only ones eligible for platelet transfusions.

Critical Care Management:

  • Individuals in need of close observation in a hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) due to severe dengue fever, DHF, or DSS.
  • Supportive measures, such as oxygen therapy, vasopressor support, and mechanical ventilation, may be necessary for patients with shock or respiratory distress.

Prevention of Complications:

  • Early detection and management of warning signs are critical to prevent progression to severe dengue.
  • Patients with warning signs, such as persistent vomiting,abdominal pain, mucosal bleeding, or clinical fluid accumulation, require close observation and may need hospitalization.

Avoidance of NSAIDs and Aspirin:

  • They should be avoided due to the increased risk of bleeding and adverse effects on platelet function in dengue patients.

Patient Education:

  • Educate the patients and caregivers about the signs and symptoms of dengue fever, warning signs of severe dengue, and the importance of seeking medical care promptly.

Vector Control:

  • Implement vector control measures, such as mosquito control programs and community education, to reduce the risk of dengue transmission.

Hydration and Fluid Intake:

  • Encourage oral rehydration with electrolyte solutions to prevent dehydration in milder cases.
  • In severe cases, intravenous fluid administration may be necessary to maintain fluid balance and prevent complications related to plasma leakage.

Rest and Adequate Sleep:

  • Emphasize the importance of rest and sufficient sleep to support the body’s immune response and aid in recovery.

Cooling Measures:

  • Use tepid sponging or apply cool compresses to help alleviate fever and provide comfort. Avoid cold water, as it can cause shivering and may lead to increased metabolism.

Avoidance of NSAIDs and Aspirin:

  • Emphasize the avoidance of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin due to their potential to increase the risk of bleeding in dengue patients.

Pain Management:

  • Utilize non-pharmacological methods for pain relief, such as warm compresses or soothing baths, to help alleviate muscle and joint pain.

Dietary Recommendations:

  • Encourage a well-balanced diet with a focus on easily digestible foods to provide adequate nutrition.
  • Maintain hydration through the consumption of fluids, including water, oral rehydration solutions, and clear soups.

Patient Education:

  • Provide education to patients and caregivers on the signs and symptoms of dengue, the importance of seeking medical attention promptly, and ways to prevent the spread of the virus through mosquito control measures.

Mosquito Avoidance:

  • Emphasize the importance of avoiding mosquito bites to prevent further transmission.
  • Encourage the use of mosquito nets, repellents, and protective clothing, particularly during peak mosquito activity times.

Emotional Support:

  • Offer emotional support to patients, as the anxiety and stress associated with the illness can impact overall well-being.
  • Ensure clear communication about the expected course of the illness and the rationale behind specific interventions.

Vector Control Measures:

  • Collaborate with public health initiatives to implement vector control measures in the community to reduce the overall risk of dengue transmission.

Analgesics play a crucial role in the treatment of dengue fever by providing relief from pain and discomfort, particularly the severe muscle and joint pain (myalgia and arthralgia) that are common symptoms of the disease. Dengue fever is often accompanied by debilitating symptoms such as severe headache, muscle pain (myalgia), and joint pain (arthralgia). Analgesics help relieve pain and discomfort, improving the patient’s overall well-being and quality of life during the acute phase of the illness.

Some analgesics, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) and ibuprofen, have antipyretic properties and can help reduce fever associated with dengue fever. Fever reduction can improve patient comfort and alleviate symptoms such as sweating and chills.

  • Acetaminophen (Paracetamol): Acetaminophen is commonly used for pain relief and fever reduction in dengue patients. It is generally considered safe and does not increase the risk of bleeding.
  • Ibuprofen (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug – NSAID): Ibuprofen can be effective for pain relief and fever reduction in dengue patients. However, it should be used with caution, especially in cases of thrombocytopenia, as NSAIDs can increase the risk of bleeding.
  • Naproxen (NSAID): Similar to ibuprofen, naproxen may be used cautiously for pain relief in dengue patients. As with other NSAIDs, it should be used judiciously to minimize the risk of bleeding.
  • Diclofenac (NSAID): Diclofenac is another NSAID that may be used for pain relief in dengue patients. It should be used with caution and avoided in patients with a history of gastrointestinal bleeding or other bleeding disorders.

Volume expanders, also known as intravenous fluids, play a crucial role in the management of dengue fever, particularly in cases where patients develop plasma leakage or vascular permeability, which can lead to hypovolemia and shock. The use of volume expanders aims to restore intravascular volume, maintain adequate tissue perfusion, and prevent complications associated with severe dengue, such as dengue shock syndrome (DSS).

Fluid Resuscitation:

  • Intravenous fluids are administered to patients with dengue fever to replace fluid loss due to fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and plasma leakage.
  • Fluid resuscitation helps maintain adequate circulating volume, preventing hypovolemia and shock, which are common complications of severe dengue.

Correction of Hypovolemia:

  • Volume expanders are used to correct hypovolemia and maintain hemodynamic stability in patients with severe dengue.
  • Adequate fluid replacement is essential to prevent organ hypoperfusion and multi-organ failure.

Types of Volume Expanders:

Crystalloids: Crystalloid solutions, such as normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and Ringer’s lactate, are commonly used as volume expanders in the treatment of dengue fever.

  • Normal saline is isotonic and helps restore intravascular volume rapidly.
  • Ringer’s lactate contains electrolytes that closely mimic plasma composition, making it suitable for fluid resuscitation and correction of metabolic acidosis.

Colloids: Colloid solutions, such as albumin and hydroxyethyl starch (HES), may be considered in severe cases of dengue with significant fluid loss and hypovolemia.

  • Albumin is a natural colloid that helps maintain oncotic pressure and expand plasma volume.
  • HES solutions are synthetic colloids that remain in the intravascular space longer than crystalloids, providing sustained volume expansion.

Fluid replacement protocols in dengue fever aim to prevent overhydration while ensuring adequate tissue perfusion and preventing complications such as fluid overload. Monitoring of vital signs, urine output, hematocrit levels, and clinical status is essential for assessing fluid responsiveness and guiding fluid therapy.

  • Normal Saline (0.9% NaCl): Normal saline is an isotonic crystalloid solution consisting of 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolved in water. Isotonic solutions have an osmolarity similar to that of human plasma. Used for fluid resuscitation, maintenance fluids, and rehydration. It is effective in restoring intravascular volume and is often the initial choice in emergencies.
  • Ringer’s Lactate: Ringer’s lactate is a crystalloid solution containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and sodium lactate in water. Isotonic solution with an osmolarity similar to plasma. Used for fluid resuscitation, particularly in cases of dehydration, surgery, trauma, and burns. It also provides some buffering capacity, aiding in the correction of metabolic acidosis.
  • Albumin (Human Serum Albumin): Albumin is a colloid solution derived from human plasma, consisting mainly of albumin protein. Colloid solutions have a higher osmotic pressure compared to crystalloids. Used for intravascular volume expansion, particularly in cases of severe hypovolemia, hypoalbuminemia, and conditions requiring oncotic support. It is often considered in cases of dengue shock syndrome.
  • Hydroxyethyl Starch (HES): Hydroxyethyl starch is a synthetic colloid solution made from starch molecules modified with hydroxyethyl groups. Colloid solutions with higher osmotic pressure. Used for volume expansion in cases of hypovolemia, shock, and situations requiring prolonged intravascular volume support. It can remain in the bloodstream for a more extended period than crystalloids.

Live viral vaccines play a crucial role in preventing dengue infection rather than treating the disease once it has occurred. There are licensed vaccines designed to prevent dengue fever caused by the four dengue virus serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4). These vaccines are live attenuated vaccines, meaning they contain weakened forms of the virus that are unable to cause severe illness but can stimulate an immune response.

Dengue Vaccine: The vaccine is used for the dengue disease prevention which is caused by dengue virus serotypes 4,3,2 and 1. It is specifically approved for individuals aged 9-16 years with laboratory-confirmed previous dengue infection.

The vaccine is only approved for those who have previously been infected with any dengue virus serotype, or for people who do not know this information. It is stated that those who have never had dengue fever before are more likely to contract the virus after receiving a vaccination. Immunization involves a series of three subcutaneous (SC) injections administered 6 months apart. The schedule aims to establish a durable immune response against dengue virus serotypes.

Interventional procedures are not typically used as primary treatments for dengue fever. Dengue fever is primarily managed with supportive care, including hydration, fever reduction, and monitoring for complications.

Fluid Resuscitation:

  • In cases of severe dengue with plasma leakage leading to hypovolemia and shock, aggressive fluid resuscitation may be necessary.
  • Intravenous fluid therapy, often with crystalloid or colloid solutions, aims to restore intravascular volume and maintain hemodynamic stability.

Blood Transfusion:

  • Severe cases of dengue shock syndrome (DSS) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) may result in significant bleeding and hemorrhage.
  • Blood transfusion, including packed red blood cells and platelet transfusion, may be indicated to replace lost blood components and improve clotting function.

Plasma Exchange (Plasmapheresis):

  • In rare cases of severe dengue with profound shock or multi-organ dysfunction, plasma exchange may be considered to remove circulating antibodies and inflammatory mediators.
  • Plasmapheresis aims to modulate the immune response and reduce systemic inflammation.

Hemodialysis:

  • Acute kidney injury (AKI) may occur in severe cases of dengue, especially those complicated by shock or multi-organ dysfunction.
  • Hemodialysis may be required for patients with severe AKI to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance and remove waste products.

Surgical Intervention:

  • In cases of severe gastrointestinal bleeding or intra-abdominal hemorrhage secondary to dengue, surgical intervention such as exploratory laparotomy may be necessary to control bleeding and repair damaged blood vessels or organs.

Febrile Phase:

  • The febrile phase marks the onset of symptoms and typically lasts for the first 2-7 days of illness.
  • Symptoms during this phase include sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, retro-orbital pain (pain behind the eyes), muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and rash.
  • Management during the febrile phase focuses on symptomatic relief and supportive care, including:
  • Fever reduction with antipyretic medications such as acetaminophen (paracetamol).
  • Hydration with oral rehydration solutions to prevent dehydration, especially in cases of fever, vomiting, and diarrhea.
  • Rest and monitoring for signs of progression to severe dengue.

Critical Phase:

  • The critical phase typically occurs around the time of defervescence (when the fever subsides) and is characterized by plasma leakage, hemorrhage, and organ dysfunction.
  • It usually begins around day 3-7 of illness and may last for 24-48 hours.
  • Warning signs of abdominal pain, persistent vomiting,severe dengue, mucosal bleeding, lethargy, restlessness, and rapid deterioration in clinical status, may manifest during this phase.
  • Management during the critical phase involves:
  • Close monitoring for warning signs and symptoms of severe dengue.
  • Intravenous fluid treatment to avoid hypovolemic shock and preserve fluid balance.
  • Transfusion support with packed red blood cells or platelets in cases of severe hemorrhage or thrombocytopenia.

Intensive care management for patients with severe dengue, including those with dengue shock syndrome (DSS) or severe bleeding complications.

Recovery Phase:

The recovery phase follows the critical phase and is characterized by resolution of symptoms and gradual improvement in clinical status.

Patients may experience fatigue, weakness, and residual symptoms such as joint pain and malaise during this phase.

  • Management during the recovery phase focuses on:
  • Continued monitoring for complications and signs of relapse.
  • Supportive care to promote recovery, including adequate rest, nutrition, and hydration.
  • Follow-up assessments to ensure complete resolution of symptoms and to monitor for long-term complications.

butantan–dengue vaccine 

It is indicated for Immunization against Dengue
This vaccine is designed to fight all four types of the dengue virus (DENV) It uses a live, weakened, four-part approach to boost its effectiveness and ability to stimulate an immune response The immune system is trained by the vaccine to identify and combat DENV It accomplishes this by displaying DENV-1, -3, and -4 components in addition to a DENV-2/-4 mix



Dose Adjustments

Limited data is available

dengue vaccine 

The vaccine is recommended to prevent dengue caused by virus serotypes 1, 3, 2, and 4 in individuals aged 9-16 with a confirmed history of past dengue infection in endemic areas

Administered in a 3-dose series, each 0.5 mL subcutaneous dose is given at 6-month intervals
It is crucial to note that the vaccine is not approved for those without a confirmed previous dengue infection
Individuals lacking prior infection may be at an elevated risk of severe dengue if vaccinated and subsequently infected
Confirming prior dengue infection through medical records or serological testing before vaccination is advised

Furthermore, the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine have not been established for individuals from nonendemic areas traveling to regions where dengue is prevalent



butantan–dengue vaccine 

It is indicated for Immunization against Dengue
This vaccine is designed to fight all four types of the dengue virus (DENV) It uses a live, weakened, four-part approach to boost its effectiveness and ability to stimulate an immune response The immune system is trained by the vaccine to identify and combat DENV It accomplishes this by displaying DENV-1, -3, and -4 components in addition to a DENV-2/-4 mix Safety and efficacy are not seen in pediatrics < 2 years



Dose Adjustments

Limited data is available