C5a Receptor Inhibition: avacopan selectively inhibits the C5a receptor, preventing the binding of the C5a protein to its receptor. C5a is a potent pro-inflammatory molecule that plays a role in activating immune cells and promoting inflammation. By blocking the C5a receptor, avacopan helps to regulate the immune response and reduce inflammation.
Modulation of Complement System: The complement system is an essential component of the immune system involved in inflammation and immune response. avacopan acts on the C5a receptor, part of the complement system, to modulate its activity. By inhibiting the C5a receptor, avacopan can help to balance the immune response and reduce excessive inflammation.
Reduction of Neutrophil Migration: Neutrophils are white blood cells that are responsible for inflammatory response. C5a is known to attract and activate neutrophils, leading to their migration to the site of inflammation. avacopan, by blocking the C5a receptor, can reduce the migration and activation of neutrophils, helping to dampen the inflammatory response.
avacopan has primarily been studied and developed for treating certain autoimmune diseases characterized by excessive inflammation and immune system dysregulation. It shows promising treatment of:
ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (AAV): ANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody)-associated vasculitis is a group of autoimmune diseases that cause inflammation and damage to blood vessels. avacopan has demonstrated efficacy in reducing disease activity and maintaining remission in patients with AAV when combined with standard immunosuppressive therapy.
Other Autoimmune and Inflammatory Conditions: avacopan is also being investigated for its potential use in other autoimmune and inflammatory conditions such as lupus nephritis, hidradenitis suppurativa, and atopic dermatitis. Clinical trials are underway to evaluate its effectiveness in these indications.