exenatide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, which means it mimics the action of the hormone GLP-1 to lower blood glucose levels. It has the following actions and spectrum of effects:
Stimulates insulin secretion: exenatide stimulates insulin secretion in response to glucose. It binds to GLP-1 receptors on pancreatic beta cells, which triggers the release of insulin.
Suppresses glucagon secretion: exenatide also suppresses glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells. Glucagon is a hormone that increases blood glucose levels, so suppressing its secretion helps to lower blood glucose levels.
Slows down gastric emptying: exenatide slows down the rate at which food leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine. This delays the absorption of glucose from food, which helps to lower blood glucose levels.
Promotes weight loss: exenatide has been shown to promote weight loss in people with type 2 diabetes. This effect is thought to be mediated through its action on GLP-1 receptors in the brain, which leads to reduced appetite and increased feelings of fullness.
Improves lipid profiles: exenatide has been shown to improve lipid profiles in people with type 2 diabetes, including reducing triglyceride levels and increasing HDL cholesterol levels.
Reduces blood pressure: exenatide has been shown to reduce blood pressure in people with type 2 diabetes, although the mechanism behind this effect is not well understood.