lixisenatide is a medication used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It belongs to a class of drugs called glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 agonists) and acts by mimicking the action of the endogenous hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).
GLP-1 Receptor Agonist: lixisenatide activates GLP-1 receptors, which are primarily located in the pancreas, leading to several physiological effects.
Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion: lixisenatide enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. It stimulates the release of insulin when blood sugar levels are elevated, thereby helping to control blood glucose levels.
Suppression of Glucagon Secretion: lixisenatide reduces glucagon secretion, a hormone that increases blood sugar levels, from pancreatic alpha cells. This action further contributes to glucose control.
Slows Gastric Emptying: lixisenatide slows down the rate at which food leaves the stomach, resulting in reduced postprandial (after-meal) glucose excursions. It helps to regulate the rise in blood sugar levels after meals.
Appetite Control: lixisenatide may promote satiety and diminish appetite, which can leads to weight loss in some individuals.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: lixisenatide is primarily indicated for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with this condition.
Monotherapy: lixisenatide can be used as a monotherapy in individuals whose blood sugar levels are inadequately controlled with diet.
Combination Therapy: lixisenatide is often prescribed with other antidiabetic medications, such as metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, or basal insulin, to achieve better glycemic control.
Cardiovascular Benefits: lixisenatide has shown cardiovascular benefits in clinical trials, including a reduction in major cardiovascular events, like heart attacks and strokes, in patients with type 2 diabetes who are at high cardiovascular risk.